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Table 1

Characteristics of study participants

Completers*CGM analysesOGTT analysis
Participants, n 70 64 41 
Sex    
 Female 29 (41.4) 24 (37.5) 27 (65.9) 
 Male 41 (58.6) 40 (62.5) 14 (34.2) 
Race    
 White 55 (78.6) 51 (79.7) 30 (73.2) 
 Black 7 (10.0) 6 (9.4) 6 (14.6) 
 Other or no response 8 (11.4) 7 (10.9) 5 (12.2) 
Ethnicity    
 Non-Hispanic 51 (72.9) 47 (73.4) 27 (65.9) 
 Hispanic 19 (27.1) 17 (26.6) 14 (34.1) 
Cohort    
 1 6 (8.6) 0 (0) 6 (14.6) 
 2 13 (18.6) 13 (20.3) 13 (31.7) 
 3 22 (31.4) 22 (34.4) 22 (53.7) 
 4 29 (41.4) 29 (45.3) 0 (0.0) 
Measurements at PRE, mean (SD)    
 Age, years 34.0 (9.2) 34.2 (9.1) 35.6 (9.2) 
 Height, cm 172.6 (9.3) 173.5 (9.1) 169.9 (8.7) 
 Weight, kg 101.2 (16.7) 102.2 (16.8) 95.5 (13.6) 
 BMI, kg/m2 34.0 (5.1) 34.0 (5.2) 33.1 (4.2) 
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 101.1 (8.0) 101.3 (7.5) 100.1 (7.7) 
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 
 2-h glucose, mg/dL§ 139.5 (38.8) 137.9 (39.2) 145.0 (42.4) 
 2-h glucose, mmol/L§ 7.7 (2.2) 7.7 (2.2) 8.0 (2.4) 
 Fasting insulin, μIU/mL 16.0 (10.1) 15.7 (10.0) 15.1 (9.4) 
 Fasting insulin, pmol/L 95.8 (60.8) 94.4 (60.2) 90.9 (56.5) 
Measurements at START, mean (SD)    
 Weight, kg 85.8 (14.1) 86.6 (14.2) 81.4 (12.0) 
 BMI, kg/m2 28.8 (4.4) 28.8 (4.5) 28.2 (3.8) 
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 81.5 (7.7) 81.5 (7.9) 81.0 (6.3) 
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 4.5 (0.4) 4.5 (0.4) 4.5 (0.4) 
 2-h glucose, mg/dL§ 148.4 (40.5) 146.1 (41.3) 156.0 (42.5) 
 2-h glucose, mmol/L§ 8.2 (2.2) 8.1 (2.3) 8.7 (2.4) 
 Fasting insulin, μIU/mL 5.9 (3.7) 5.7 (3.7) 5.6 (3.3) 
 Fasting Insulin, pmol/L 35.5 (22.2) 34.5 (22.1) 33.7 (19.6) 
Completers*CGM analysesOGTT analysis
Participants, n 70 64 41 
Sex    
 Female 29 (41.4) 24 (37.5) 27 (65.9) 
 Male 41 (58.6) 40 (62.5) 14 (34.2) 
Race    
 White 55 (78.6) 51 (79.7) 30 (73.2) 
 Black 7 (10.0) 6 (9.4) 6 (14.6) 
 Other or no response 8 (11.4) 7 (10.9) 5 (12.2) 
Ethnicity    
 Non-Hispanic 51 (72.9) 47 (73.4) 27 (65.9) 
 Hispanic 19 (27.1) 17 (26.6) 14 (34.1) 
Cohort    
 1 6 (8.6) 0 (0) 6 (14.6) 
 2 13 (18.6) 13 (20.3) 13 (31.7) 
 3 22 (31.4) 22 (34.4) 22 (53.7) 
 4 29 (41.4) 29 (45.3) 0 (0.0) 
Measurements at PRE, mean (SD)    
 Age, years 34.0 (9.2) 34.2 (9.1) 35.6 (9.2) 
 Height, cm 172.6 (9.3) 173.5 (9.1) 169.9 (8.7) 
 Weight, kg 101.2 (16.7) 102.2 (16.8) 95.5 (13.6) 
 BMI, kg/m2 34.0 (5.1) 34.0 (5.2) 33.1 (4.2) 
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 101.1 (8.0) 101.3 (7.5) 100.1 (7.7) 
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 
 2-h glucose, mg/dL§ 139.5 (38.8) 137.9 (39.2) 145.0 (42.4) 
 2-h glucose, mmol/L§ 7.7 (2.2) 7.7 (2.2) 8.0 (2.4) 
 Fasting insulin, μIU/mL 16.0 (10.1) 15.7 (10.0) 15.1 (9.4) 
 Fasting insulin, pmol/L 95.8 (60.8) 94.4 (60.2) 90.9 (56.5) 
Measurements at START, mean (SD)    
 Weight, kg 85.8 (14.1) 86.6 (14.2) 81.4 (12.0) 
 BMI, kg/m2 28.8 (4.4) 28.8 (4.5) 28.2 (3.8) 
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 81.5 (7.7) 81.5 (7.9) 81.0 (6.3) 
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 4.5 (0.4) 4.5 (0.4) 4.5 (0.4) 
 2-h glucose, mg/dL§ 148.4 (40.5) 146.1 (41.3) 156.0 (42.5) 
 2-h glucose, mmol/L§ 8.2 (2.2) 8.1 (2.3) 8.7 (2.4) 
 Fasting insulin, μIU/mL 5.9 (3.7) 5.7 (3.7) 5.6 (3.3) 
 Fasting Insulin, pmol/L 35.5 (22.2) 34.5 (22.1) 33.7 (19.6) 

Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

*

Of the 77 randomized participants, 70 were retained at END (completers).

CGM data were available for 64 retained participants (because a different device, yielding incomparable data, was used for 6 participants in the initial cohort).

OGTT data were available for 41 retained participants (due to elimination of the OGTT at END for 29 participants in the final cohort as part of risk mitigation in response to COVID-19).

§

OGTT curves for glucose and insulin at PRE and START are presented in Supplementary Fig. 2.

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