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Table 1

Characteristics among all patients by uACR and eGFR testing

All patientsuACR and eGFR, testeduACR or eGFR, not testeduACR, testeduACR, not tested
N (%) 513,165 (100) 278,309 (54.2) 284,856 (45.8) 286,823 (55.9) 226,342 (44.1) 
Demographics      
 Age (years), %      
  18–49 12.3 11.3 13.4 11.6 13.1 
  50–64 35.1 35.0 35.1 35.2 34.9 
  65–75 34.5 36.0 32.8 35.8 32.9 
  76–85 18.1 17.6 18.8 17.4 19.1 
 Sex: female, % 48.6 48.1 49.2 48.1 49.1 
 Race, %      
  American Indian or Alaska Native 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 
  Asian 2.7 3.0 2.3 3.0 2.3 
  Black or African American 12.3 12.6 11.9 12.7 11.8 
  White or Caucasian 78.1 77.3 79.0 77.2 79.1 
  Other/unknown 6.5 6.7 6.4 6.7 6.4 
 Ethnicity, %      
  Hispanic 6.5 7.0 5.9 7.0 5.8 
  Not Hispanic 89.7 89.9 89.5 89.8 89.6 
  Unknown 3.8 3.1 4.6 3.1 4.6 
 RUCA, %      
  Metropolitan 80.2 83.3 76.4 83.3 76.1 
  Large rural city 8.5 7.1 10.3 7.1 10.4 
  Small or isolated rural 8.6 7.3 10.2 7.3 10.3 
  Unknown 2.7 2.3 3.1 2.3 3.1 
 Median household income, median (IQR) 42,960 (35,635–54,197) 44,274 (36,334–55,235) 42,022 (34,661–52,626) 44,198 (36,334–55,235) 42,022 (34,661–52,593) 
 Insurance, %      
  Commercial 44.0 44.8 42.9 44.9 42.7 
  Medicaid 4.9 4.3 5.6 4.4 5.5 
  Medicare 46.6 46.2 47.0 46.0 47.4 
  Other 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.7 4.4 
 Smoking, %      
  Current 12.1 10.8 13.6 10.9 13.6 
  Previous 33.6 33.5 33.7 33.5 33.8 
  Never 54.3 55.7 52.7 55.6 52.6 
Comorbid conditions diagnosed, %      
 Hypertension 80.1 81.0 79.0 80.7 79.3 
 Heart failure 9.0 8.1 10.1 8.0 10.3 
 ASCVD 30.4 29.5 31.6 29.3 31.8 
 Diabetic retinopathy 1.9 2.1 1.6 2.1 1.6 
 CKD 25.2 27.4 22.7 27.1 22.9 
DCSI, mean (SD) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 
Medications prescribed, %      
 GLP-1 RA 12.0 13.4 10.3 13.3 10.2 
 SGLT2 inhibitor 11.0 12.2 9.4 12.2 9.4 
 Statin 73.2 77.7 68.0 77.5 67.9 
 ACE inhibitor or ARB 68.2 71.4 64.4 71.1 64.5 
Utilization      
 Diabetes education or medical nutrition, % 8.1 9.0 6.9 9.0 6.9 
 Outpatient visits, mean (SD)      
  Any provider 13.2 (12.7) 13.7 (13.0) 12.6 (12.3) 13.6 (12.9) 12.7 (12.3) 
  PCP 6.7 (4.9) 6.9 (4.9) 6.5 (4.9) 6.9 (4.9) 6.5 (5.0) 
  Endocrinology 0.4 (1.3) 0.4 (1.5) 0.3 (1.1) 0.4 (1.5) 0.3 (1.1) 
  Nephrology 0.1 (0.6) 0.1 (0.7) 0.1 (0.6) 0.1 (0.7) 0.1 (0.6) 
 Laboratory tests      
  eGFR      
   Measured, % 89.1 100 76.3 97.0 79.1 
   Mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m2 77.4 (22.7) 77.6 (22.2) 77.0 (23.3) 77.8 (22.1) 76.8 (23.3) 
  uACR      
   Measured, % 55.9 100 3.6 100 
   Median (IQR), mg/g 16.0 (8.2–39.0) 16.0 (8.2–39.0) 16.1 (8.1–34.1) 16.0 (8.2–39.0)  
  Urine albumin concentration      
   Measured, % 59.2 98.6 12.5 98.4 9.6 
   Median (IQR), mg/dL 1.4 (1.0–4.3) 1.4 (1.0–4.3) 1.6 (1.0–5.0) 1.4 (1.0–4.3) 1.7 (0.9–5.7) 
  uPCR      
   Measured, % 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 
   Median (IQR), mg/g 242 (120–740) 239 (121–683) 250 (123–871) 239 (121–685) 250 (120–870) 
  Urine dipstick: measured, % 30.6 34.4 26.1 33.9 26.5 
 Quality measures*      
  HbA1c, %      
   Missing 7.4 0.5 15.6 0.6 16.0 
   ≥8.0% (≥7.0) 19.5 (41.8) 20.5 (45.5) 18.2 (37.3) 20.7 (45.6) 18.0 (37.0) 
   <8.0% (< 7.0) 73.1 (50.8) 79.0 (54.0) 66.2 (47.1) 78.7 (53.8) 66.0 (47.0) 
  BP, %      
   Missing 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 
   ≥140/90 mmHg (≥130/80) 20.8 (55.8) 19.5 (55.1) 22.5 (56.6) 19.4 (55.1) 22.6 (56.6) 
   <140/90 mmHg (<130/80) 78.9 (43.9) 80.5 (44.8) 77.0 (42.9) 80.5 (44.8) 76.9 (42.8) 
  Medical attention for nephropathy, % 89.5 100 77.1 100 76.2 
All patientsuACR and eGFR, testeduACR or eGFR, not testeduACR, testeduACR, not tested
N (%) 513,165 (100) 278,309 (54.2) 284,856 (45.8) 286,823 (55.9) 226,342 (44.1) 
Demographics      
 Age (years), %      
  18–49 12.3 11.3 13.4 11.6 13.1 
  50–64 35.1 35.0 35.1 35.2 34.9 
  65–75 34.5 36.0 32.8 35.8 32.9 
  76–85 18.1 17.6 18.8 17.4 19.1 
 Sex: female, % 48.6 48.1 49.2 48.1 49.1 
 Race, %      
  American Indian or Alaska Native 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 
  Asian 2.7 3.0 2.3 3.0 2.3 
  Black or African American 12.3 12.6 11.9 12.7 11.8 
  White or Caucasian 78.1 77.3 79.0 77.2 79.1 
  Other/unknown 6.5 6.7 6.4 6.7 6.4 
 Ethnicity, %      
  Hispanic 6.5 7.0 5.9 7.0 5.8 
  Not Hispanic 89.7 89.9 89.5 89.8 89.6 
  Unknown 3.8 3.1 4.6 3.1 4.6 
 RUCA, %      
  Metropolitan 80.2 83.3 76.4 83.3 76.1 
  Large rural city 8.5 7.1 10.3 7.1 10.4 
  Small or isolated rural 8.6 7.3 10.2 7.3 10.3 
  Unknown 2.7 2.3 3.1 2.3 3.1 
 Median household income, median (IQR) 42,960 (35,635–54,197) 44,274 (36,334–55,235) 42,022 (34,661–52,626) 44,198 (36,334–55,235) 42,022 (34,661–52,593) 
 Insurance, %      
  Commercial 44.0 44.8 42.9 44.9 42.7 
  Medicaid 4.9 4.3 5.6 4.4 5.5 
  Medicare 46.6 46.2 47.0 46.0 47.4 
  Other 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.7 4.4 
 Smoking, %      
  Current 12.1 10.8 13.6 10.9 13.6 
  Previous 33.6 33.5 33.7 33.5 33.8 
  Never 54.3 55.7 52.7 55.6 52.6 
Comorbid conditions diagnosed, %      
 Hypertension 80.1 81.0 79.0 80.7 79.3 
 Heart failure 9.0 8.1 10.1 8.0 10.3 
 ASCVD 30.4 29.5 31.6 29.3 31.8 
 Diabetic retinopathy 1.9 2.1 1.6 2.1 1.6 
 CKD 25.2 27.4 22.7 27.1 22.9 
DCSI, mean (SD) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 
Medications prescribed, %      
 GLP-1 RA 12.0 13.4 10.3 13.3 10.2 
 SGLT2 inhibitor 11.0 12.2 9.4 12.2 9.4 
 Statin 73.2 77.7 68.0 77.5 67.9 
 ACE inhibitor or ARB 68.2 71.4 64.4 71.1 64.5 
Utilization      
 Diabetes education or medical nutrition, % 8.1 9.0 6.9 9.0 6.9 
 Outpatient visits, mean (SD)      
  Any provider 13.2 (12.7) 13.7 (13.0) 12.6 (12.3) 13.6 (12.9) 12.7 (12.3) 
  PCP 6.7 (4.9) 6.9 (4.9) 6.5 (4.9) 6.9 (4.9) 6.5 (5.0) 
  Endocrinology 0.4 (1.3) 0.4 (1.5) 0.3 (1.1) 0.4 (1.5) 0.3 (1.1) 
  Nephrology 0.1 (0.6) 0.1 (0.7) 0.1 (0.6) 0.1 (0.7) 0.1 (0.6) 
 Laboratory tests      
  eGFR      
   Measured, % 89.1 100 76.3 97.0 79.1 
   Mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m2 77.4 (22.7) 77.6 (22.2) 77.0 (23.3) 77.8 (22.1) 76.8 (23.3) 
  uACR      
   Measured, % 55.9 100 3.6 100 
   Median (IQR), mg/g 16.0 (8.2–39.0) 16.0 (8.2–39.0) 16.1 (8.1–34.1) 16.0 (8.2–39.0)  
  Urine albumin concentration      
   Measured, % 59.2 98.6 12.5 98.4 9.6 
   Median (IQR), mg/dL 1.4 (1.0–4.3) 1.4 (1.0–4.3) 1.6 (1.0–5.0) 1.4 (1.0–4.3) 1.7 (0.9–5.7) 
  uPCR      
   Measured, % 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 
   Median (IQR), mg/g 242 (120–740) 239 (121–683) 250 (123–871) 239 (121–685) 250 (120–870) 
  Urine dipstick: measured, % 30.6 34.4 26.1 33.9 26.5 
 Quality measures*      
  HbA1c, %      
   Missing 7.4 0.5 15.6 0.6 16.0 
   ≥8.0% (≥7.0) 19.5 (41.8) 20.5 (45.5) 18.2 (37.3) 20.7 (45.6) 18.0 (37.0) 
   <8.0% (< 7.0) 73.1 (50.8) 79.0 (54.0) 66.2 (47.1) 78.7 (53.8) 66.0 (47.0) 
  BP, %      
   Missing 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 
   ≥140/90 mmHg (≥130/80) 20.8 (55.8) 19.5 (55.1) 22.5 (56.6) 19.4 (55.1) 22.6 (56.6) 
   <140/90 mmHg (<130/80) 78.9 (43.9) 80.5 (44.8) 77.0 (42.9) 80.5 (44.8) 76.9 (42.8) 
  Medical attention for nephropathy, % 89.5 100 77.1 100 76.2 

ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BP, blood pressure; DCSI, Diabetes Complications Severity Index; IQR, interquartile range; PCP, primary care physician; RUCA, rural-urban commuting area.

*

Missing HbA1c is HbA1c ≥8.0% (≥7.0), and HbA1c <8.0% (<7.0), sum to 100%, and missing BP is BP ≥140/90 mmHg (≥130/80) and BP <140/90 mmHg (<130/80), sum to 100%.

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