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Table 2

Trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of risk factors among U.S. adults with newly diagnosed diabetes (diagnosed within the past 2 years), NHANES 1988–2018

1988–19941999–20082009–2018P for trend
Glucose control     
 HbA1c, % points, median 6.3 (5.6–8.1) 6.2 (5.7–7.1) 6.2 (5.7–7.1) 0.24 
 HbA1c, % points, mean 7.0 (6.6–7.3) 6.8 (6.5–7.1) 6.7 (6.5–6.8) 0.02 
 Treated, %     
  Insulin or oral medication use 73.0 (65.1–79.6) 73.1 (67.6–78.1) 72.8 (67.3–77.6) 0.86 
  Oral medication use only 60.2 (51.8–68.0) 66.5 (60.8–71.9) 65.3 (59.3–70.8) 0.35 
  Any insulin use 12.8 (8.6–18.7) 6.6 (3.7–11.4) 7.5 (5.4–10.3) 0.03 
 HbA1c <7.0%-points (<53 mmol/mol), % 59.8 (50.0–69.0) 69.9 (63.0–76.0) 73.7 (68.9–78.1) 0.002 
Blood pressure     
 Systolic, mmHg median 130.0 (119.0–137.0) 126.7 (118.0–137.3) 124.0 (114.0–135.3) 0.02 
 Diastolic, mmHg, median 78.0 (73.0–85.0) 72.7 (64.0–82.0) 72.0 (64.7–79.0) <0.001 
 Systolic, mmHg, mean 130.1 (127.4–132.8) 129.2 (127.0–131.4) 126.0 (124.2–127.7) 0.02 
 Diastolic , mmHg, mean 77.5 (75.9–79.2) 72.0 (69.9–74.1) 72.1 (70.8–73.5) <0.001 
 Treated, % 39.5 (30.4–49.5) 51.5 (45.4–57.5) 55.2 (49.3–61.0) 0.01 
 Hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or med use), % 48.9 (40.3–57.5) 59.5 (53.2–65.4) 61.2 (55.2–67.0) 0.03 
  Treated* 81.4 (69.3–89.5) 86.0 (79.8–90.5) 90.1 (86.1–93.1) 0.08 
  Treated and controlled (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg)* 47.8 (35.8–60.0) 58.9 (51.3–66.2) 65.9 (58.7–72.3) 0.02 
 Hypertension (≥130/80 mmHg or med use), % 71.4 (61.0–79.9) 71.1 (65.5–76.2) 71.1 (65.0–76.5) 0.97 
  Treated* 55.6 (43.9–66.6) 71.9 (64.9–78.0) 77.6 (72.0–82.4) 0.001 
  Treated and controlled (blood pressure <130/80 mmHg)* 9.0 (4.6–17.0) 28.5 (23.0–34.8) 36.8 (30.7–43.4) <0.001 
Lipids     
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL, median 212.0 (187.0–246.0) 192.0 (166.0–218.0) 181.0 (153.0–208.0) <0.001 
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL, mean 219.4 (210.0–228.8) 198.4 (192.5–204.2) 182.4 (178.3–186.6) <0.001 
 Treated, % 14.1 (8.3–22.9) 35.2 (29.1–41.7) 43.8 (37.8–49.9) <0.001 
 Hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or med use), % 40.3 (30.2–51.3) 45.4 (39.5–51.4) 49.8 (44.3–55.4) 0.14 
  Treated 32.4 (20.5–47.2) 71.1 (62.7–78.2) 86.1 (81.1–90.0) <0.001 
  Treated and controlled (total cholesterol <240 mg/dL) 17.1 (7.6–34.1) 45.0 (34.5–55.9) 71.2 (63.9–77.6) <0.001 
 Hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL or med use), % 71.6 (65.3–77.1) 65.1 (59.7–70.2) 66.3 (61.3–70.9) 0.14 
  Treated 18.5 (11.0–29.4) 51.5 (43.8–59.1) 65.4 (58.4–71.8) <0.001 
  Treated and controlled (total cholesterol <200 mg/dL) 9.4 (4.2–19.7) 29.9 (22.2–39.0) 52.4 (45.1–59.5) <0.001 
All three risk factors controlled     
 HbA1c <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) plus     
  Blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, % 9.4 (6.1–14.2) 18.1 (13.6–23.8) 33.0 (27.0–39.5) <0.001 
  Blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, total cholesterol <240 mg/dL, % 31.6 (23.6–40.9) 47.8 (41.2–54.5) 56.2 (51.2–61.1) <0.001 
1988–19941999–20082009–2018P for trend
Glucose control     
 HbA1c, % points, median 6.3 (5.6–8.1) 6.2 (5.7–7.1) 6.2 (5.7–7.1) 0.24 
 HbA1c, % points, mean 7.0 (6.6–7.3) 6.8 (6.5–7.1) 6.7 (6.5–6.8) 0.02 
 Treated, %     
  Insulin or oral medication use 73.0 (65.1–79.6) 73.1 (67.6–78.1) 72.8 (67.3–77.6) 0.86 
  Oral medication use only 60.2 (51.8–68.0) 66.5 (60.8–71.9) 65.3 (59.3–70.8) 0.35 
  Any insulin use 12.8 (8.6–18.7) 6.6 (3.7–11.4) 7.5 (5.4–10.3) 0.03 
 HbA1c <7.0%-points (<53 mmol/mol), % 59.8 (50.0–69.0) 69.9 (63.0–76.0) 73.7 (68.9–78.1) 0.002 
Blood pressure     
 Systolic, mmHg median 130.0 (119.0–137.0) 126.7 (118.0–137.3) 124.0 (114.0–135.3) 0.02 
 Diastolic, mmHg, median 78.0 (73.0–85.0) 72.7 (64.0–82.0) 72.0 (64.7–79.0) <0.001 
 Systolic, mmHg, mean 130.1 (127.4–132.8) 129.2 (127.0–131.4) 126.0 (124.2–127.7) 0.02 
 Diastolic , mmHg, mean 77.5 (75.9–79.2) 72.0 (69.9–74.1) 72.1 (70.8–73.5) <0.001 
 Treated, % 39.5 (30.4–49.5) 51.5 (45.4–57.5) 55.2 (49.3–61.0) 0.01 
 Hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or med use), % 48.9 (40.3–57.5) 59.5 (53.2–65.4) 61.2 (55.2–67.0) 0.03 
  Treated* 81.4 (69.3–89.5) 86.0 (79.8–90.5) 90.1 (86.1–93.1) 0.08 
  Treated and controlled (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg)* 47.8 (35.8–60.0) 58.9 (51.3–66.2) 65.9 (58.7–72.3) 0.02 
 Hypertension (≥130/80 mmHg or med use), % 71.4 (61.0–79.9) 71.1 (65.5–76.2) 71.1 (65.0–76.5) 0.97 
  Treated* 55.6 (43.9–66.6) 71.9 (64.9–78.0) 77.6 (72.0–82.4) 0.001 
  Treated and controlled (blood pressure <130/80 mmHg)* 9.0 (4.6–17.0) 28.5 (23.0–34.8) 36.8 (30.7–43.4) <0.001 
Lipids     
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL, median 212.0 (187.0–246.0) 192.0 (166.0–218.0) 181.0 (153.0–208.0) <0.001 
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL, mean 219.4 (210.0–228.8) 198.4 (192.5–204.2) 182.4 (178.3–186.6) <0.001 
 Treated, % 14.1 (8.3–22.9) 35.2 (29.1–41.7) 43.8 (37.8–49.9) <0.001 
 Hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or med use), % 40.3 (30.2–51.3) 45.4 (39.5–51.4) 49.8 (44.3–55.4) 0.14 
  Treated 32.4 (20.5–47.2) 71.1 (62.7–78.2) 86.1 (81.1–90.0) <0.001 
  Treated and controlled (total cholesterol <240 mg/dL) 17.1 (7.6–34.1) 45.0 (34.5–55.9) 71.2 (63.9–77.6) <0.001 
 Hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL or med use), % 71.6 (65.3–77.1) 65.1 (59.7–70.2) 66.3 (61.3–70.9) 0.14 
  Treated 18.5 (11.0–29.4) 51.5 (43.8–59.1) 65.4 (58.4–71.8) <0.001 
  Treated and controlled (total cholesterol <200 mg/dL) 9.4 (4.2–19.7) 29.9 (22.2–39.0) 52.4 (45.1–59.5) <0.001 
All three risk factors controlled     
 HbA1c <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) plus     
  Blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, % 9.4 (6.1–14.2) 18.1 (13.6–23.8) 33.0 (27.0–39.5) <0.001 
  Blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, total cholesterol <240 mg/dL, % 31.6 (23.6–40.9) 47.8 (41.2–54.5) 56.2 (51.2–61.1) <0.001 

Data are presented as percentages or as means (with 95% CIs) or median (with interquartile range).

*

Computed for those with hypertension.

Computed for those with hyperlipidemia.

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