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Table 2

Vascular complications in relation to Lp(a) levels

Lp(a) levels, nmol/L
AllVery LowLowIntermediateHigh
<1010–3030–120>120
All, n (%) 1,860 621 (33.3) 502 (27.0) 434 (23.2) 303 (16.3) 
Macrovascular      
 CVD, n (%) 168 38 (6.1) 54 (10.7) 38 (8.7) 38 (12.5) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.85 (1.20–2.85)** 1.47 (0.92–2.35) 2.20 (1.37–3.52)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.54 (0.98–2.43) 1.22 (0.79–1.99) 1.59 (0.96–2.61) 
  CHD, n (%) 128 27 (4.3) 44 (8.8) 27 (6.2) 30 (9.9) 
   RRR (95% CI)  2.11 (1.29–3.46)** 1.46 (0.84–2.52) 2.42 (1.41–4.15)** 
   RRR, adjusted (95%CI)  1.73 (1.04–2.92)* 1.18 (0.67–2.10) 1.70 (0.97–3.00) 
  CVL, n (%) 63 16 (2.6) 18 (3.6) 16 (3.7) 13 (4.3) 
   RRR (95% CI)  1.41 (0.71–2.93) 1.45 (0.71–2.93) 1.69 (0.80–3.57) 
   RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.16 (0.58–2.34) 1.21 (0.59–2.47) 1.22 (0.57–2.60) 
Microvascular      
 Albuminuria, n (%) 255 63 (10.1) 66 (13.1) 73 (16.8) 53 (17.5) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.33 (0.92–1.92) 1.78 (1.24–2.56)** 1.87 (1.26–2.78)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.23 (0.85–1.78) 1.69 (1.17–2.44)** 1.68 (1.12–2.50)* 
 Retinopathy, n (%) 1,294 406 (65.4) 363 (72.3) 311 (71.6) 214 (70.6) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.39 (1.07–1.80)* 1.38 (1.05–1.81)* 1.28 (0.95–1.74) 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.30 (1.00–1.69)* 1.30 (0.99–1.72) 1.13 (0.83–1.54) 
 Neuropathy, n (%) 390 133 (21.4) 105 (20.9) 87 (20.0) 65 (21.4) 
  RRR (95% CI)  0.95 (0.71–1.27) 0.92 (0.68–1.25) 1.01 (0.72–1.42) 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.08 (0.80–1.46) 1.05 (0.76–1.44) 1.27 (0.89–1.80) 
Diabetic foot disease      
 Ulceration, n (%) 77 25 (4.0) 20 (4.0) 16 (3.7) 16 (5.3) 
  RRR (95% CI)  0.96 (0.53–1.76) 0.90 (0.47–1.72) 1.33 (0.69–2.54) 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.04 (0.56–1.91) 0.98 (0.51–1.86) 1.51 (0.79–2.91) 
Composite CVD§ 240 62 (10.0) 72 (14.3) 54 (12.4) 52 (17.2) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.51 (1.05–2.17)* 1.28 (0.87–1.89) 1.87 (1.26–2.78)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.34 (0.92–1.94) 1.31 (0.76–1.68) 1.51 (1.01–2.28)* 
Calcified aortic valve disease      
 Sclerosis/stenosis, n (%) 88 16 (2.6) 27 (5.4) 23 (5.3) 22 (7.3) 
  RRR (95% CI)  2.15 (1.14–4.04)* 2.12 (1.11–4.06)* 2.96 (1.53–5.72)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.73 (0.90–3.31) 1.73 (0.88–3.38) 2.03 (1.03–4.03)* 
Lp(a) levels, nmol/L
AllVery LowLowIntermediateHigh
<1010–3030–120>120
All, n (%) 1,860 621 (33.3) 502 (27.0) 434 (23.2) 303 (16.3) 
Macrovascular      
 CVD, n (%) 168 38 (6.1) 54 (10.7) 38 (8.7) 38 (12.5) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.85 (1.20–2.85)** 1.47 (0.92–2.35) 2.20 (1.37–3.52)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.54 (0.98–2.43) 1.22 (0.79–1.99) 1.59 (0.96–2.61) 
  CHD, n (%) 128 27 (4.3) 44 (8.8) 27 (6.2) 30 (9.9) 
   RRR (95% CI)  2.11 (1.29–3.46)** 1.46 (0.84–2.52) 2.42 (1.41–4.15)** 
   RRR, adjusted (95%CI)  1.73 (1.04–2.92)* 1.18 (0.67–2.10) 1.70 (0.97–3.00) 
  CVL, n (%) 63 16 (2.6) 18 (3.6) 16 (3.7) 13 (4.3) 
   RRR (95% CI)  1.41 (0.71–2.93) 1.45 (0.71–2.93) 1.69 (0.80–3.57) 
   RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.16 (0.58–2.34) 1.21 (0.59–2.47) 1.22 (0.57–2.60) 
Microvascular      
 Albuminuria, n (%) 255 63 (10.1) 66 (13.1) 73 (16.8) 53 (17.5) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.33 (0.92–1.92) 1.78 (1.24–2.56)** 1.87 (1.26–2.78)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.23 (0.85–1.78) 1.69 (1.17–2.44)** 1.68 (1.12–2.50)* 
 Retinopathy, n (%) 1,294 406 (65.4) 363 (72.3) 311 (71.6) 214 (70.6) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.39 (1.07–1.80)* 1.38 (1.05–1.81)* 1.28 (0.95–1.74) 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.30 (1.00–1.69)* 1.30 (0.99–1.72) 1.13 (0.83–1.54) 
 Neuropathy, n (%) 390 133 (21.4) 105 (20.9) 87 (20.0) 65 (21.4) 
  RRR (95% CI)  0.95 (0.71–1.27) 0.92 (0.68–1.25) 1.01 (0.72–1.42) 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.08 (0.80–1.46) 1.05 (0.76–1.44) 1.27 (0.89–1.80) 
Diabetic foot disease      
 Ulceration, n (%) 77 25 (4.0) 20 (4.0) 16 (3.7) 16 (5.3) 
  RRR (95% CI)  0.96 (0.53–1.76) 0.90 (0.47–1.72) 1.33 (0.69–2.54) 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.04 (0.56–1.91) 0.98 (0.51–1.86) 1.51 (0.79–2.91) 
Composite CVD§ 240 62 (10.0) 72 (14.3) 54 (12.4) 52 (17.2) 
  RRR (95% CI)  1.51 (1.05–2.17)* 1.28 (0.87–1.89) 1.87 (1.26–2.78)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.34 (0.92–1.94) 1.31 (0.76–1.68) 1.51 (1.01–2.28)* 
Calcified aortic valve disease      
 Sclerosis/stenosis, n (%) 88 16 (2.6) 27 (5.4) 23 (5.3) 22 (7.3) 
  RRR (95% CI)  2.15 (1.14–4.04)* 2.12 (1.11–4.06)* 2.96 (1.53–5.72)** 
  RRR, adjusted (95% CI)  1.73 (0.90–3.31) 1.73 (0.88–3.38) 2.03 (1.03–4.03)* 

Adjusted for age and smoking status.

§

Composite CVD: macrovascular complications, including CHD (including history of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, presence of coronary angioplasty implant, or coronary artery bypass graft), CVL (including transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke), and diabetic foot ulcerations as a clinical sign of peripheral artery disease.

*

P < 0.05;

**

P < 0.01.

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