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TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics From the First Observation Period Contributed by Each Participant

N = 6,998
Age, years, mean (SD) 60.9 ± 15.2 
Age category, years  
 <60 3,083 (44.1) 
 60 to <70 1,996 (28.5) 
 70 to <80 1,248 (17.8) 
 ≥80 671 (9.6) 
Female sex 3,419 (48.9) 
Race/ethnicity*  
 Non-Hispanic White 2,308 (33.0) 
 Non-Hispanic Asian 1,888 (27.0) 
 Non-Hispanic Black 898 (12.8) 
 Hispanic 1,020 (14.6) 
 Other/unknown 884 (12.6) 
A1C category, %  
 <6 872 (12.5) 
 6–6.9 2,215 (31.7) 
 7–7.9 1,778 (25.4) 
 8–8.9 986 (14.1) 
 ≥9 1,147 (16.4) 
CKD (stage 4–5) 319 (4.6) 
Medication order during baseline period  
 Any insulin 2,662 (38.0) 
 Any secretagogues, no insulin 1,656 (23.7) 
 Metformin only 2,175 (31.1) 
 Other glucose-lowering medication 505 (7.22) 
Insurance  
 Private 2,419 (34.6) 
 Medicare 3,174 (45.4) 
 Medicaid 1,184 (16.9) 
 None/other/unknown 221 (3.2) 
 Number of observation periods per patient 3.7 ± 3.4 
Change in medication order after A1C measurement§  
 Change in insulin medication orders 3,115 (13.7) 
 Change in secretagogue medication orders, no change to insulin 2,300 (10.1) 
 Change in metformin only 1,542 (6.8) 
 Other glucose-lowering medication change 755 (3.3) 
 No change in medication orders 14,961 (66.0) 
Number of medication changes during observation period 2.4 ± 2.0 
Days to medication change, median (IQR) 13 (2–60) 
N = 6,998
Age, years, mean (SD) 60.9 ± 15.2 
Age category, years  
 <60 3,083 (44.1) 
 60 to <70 1,996 (28.5) 
 70 to <80 1,248 (17.8) 
 ≥80 671 (9.6) 
Female sex 3,419 (48.9) 
Race/ethnicity*  
 Non-Hispanic White 2,308 (33.0) 
 Non-Hispanic Asian 1,888 (27.0) 
 Non-Hispanic Black 898 (12.8) 
 Hispanic 1,020 (14.6) 
 Other/unknown 884 (12.6) 
A1C category, %  
 <6 872 (12.5) 
 6–6.9 2,215 (31.7) 
 7–7.9 1,778 (25.4) 
 8–8.9 986 (14.1) 
 ≥9 1,147 (16.4) 
CKD (stage 4–5) 319 (4.6) 
Medication order during baseline period  
 Any insulin 2,662 (38.0) 
 Any secretagogues, no insulin 1,656 (23.7) 
 Metformin only 2,175 (31.1) 
 Other glucose-lowering medication 505 (7.22) 
Insurance  
 Private 2,419 (34.6) 
 Medicare 3,174 (45.4) 
 Medicaid 1,184 (16.9) 
 None/other/unknown 221 (3.2) 
 Number of observation periods per patient 3.7 ± 3.4 
Change in medication order after A1C measurement§  
 Change in insulin medication orders 3,115 (13.7) 
 Change in secretagogue medication orders, no change to insulin 2,300 (10.1) 
 Change in metformin only 1,542 (6.8) 
 Other glucose-lowering medication change 755 (3.3) 
 No change in medication orders 14,961 (66.0) 
Number of medication changes during observation period 2.4 ± 2.0 
Days to medication change, median (IQR) 13 (2–60) 

Data are mean ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise noted.

*

Race/ethnicity was based on patient self-reports.

CKD (stage 4–5) was determined using eGFR laboratory values; patients with stage 4–5 CKD had eGFR values ≤29 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Insurance status was determined using the insurance class recorded for the last available encounter preceding the index date.

§

Across all observations (n = 22,673).

Across all observations with a medication change after A1C measurement (n = 7,712). IQR, interquartile range.

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