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Table 1

Summary of clinical metrics that characterize glucose control performance of 20 adult subjects controlled by PID and MPC algorithms for 27.5-h sessions

MPCPIDP
Overall study    
 Glucose (mg/dL) 138 (20.40) 160 (31.5) 0.012* 
 Glucose at 7:00 a.m. (mg/dL) 119 (28.0) 135 (51.7) 0.229 
 % time <70 mg/dL 4.6 (4.65) 2.93 (5.92) 0.329 
 % time 80–140 mg/dL 49.8 (13.1) 36.5 (17.1) 0.009* 
 % time >180 mg/dL 21.0 (12.1) 33.3 (19.1) 0.020* 
 % time 70–180 mg/dL 74.4 (11.0) 63.7 (16.4) 0.021* 
 No. of <70 mg/dL events >15 min 2.75 (3.02) 1.75 (4.05) 0.382 
 No. of treatments 2.60 (2.68) 1.60 (2.68) 0.246 
 LBGI 1.21 (0.86) 0.82 (1.09) 0.222 
 HBGI 4.40 (2.56) 7.51 (4.52) 0.011* 
Overnight only    
 Glucose (mg/dL) 109 (15.1) 126 (35.9) 0.058 
 % time <70 mg/dL 7.29 (10.2) 3.59 (9.18) 0.235 
 % time 80–140 mg/dL 70.2 (23.3) 57.9 (34.2) 0.189 
 % time >180 mg/dL 3.59 (7.37) 12.7 (22.7) 0.095 
 % time 70–180 mg/dL 89.1 (12.4) 83.7 (22.4) 0.351 
 No. of <70 mg/dL events >15 min 1.25 (2.00) 0.65 (1.81) 0.326 
 No. of treatments 1.05 (1.36) 0.35 (0.81) 0.055 
 LBGI 1.94 (1.74) 1.18 (1.73) 0.173 
 HBGI 0.96 (1.30) 2.48 (3.58) 0.082 
5-hour postprandial period after unannounced meal (65 g CHO)    
 Mean glucose (mg/dL) 181 (42.0) 220 (55.9) 0.019* 
 Max Δglucose (mg/dL) 146 (44.3) 142 (43.1) 0.774 
 % time <70 mg/dL 1.89 (3.58) 1.64 (5.70) 0.871 
 % time 80–140 mg/dL 22.2 (18.7) 13.7 (18.9) 0.160 
 % time >180 mg/dL 52.0 (30.3) 66.9 (31.6) 0.135 
 % time 70–180 mg/dL 46.1 (28.8) 31.5 (28.8) 0.116 
 Minutes to <180 mg/dL 157 (92.5) 188 (102) 0.313 
 HBGI 10.6 (6.91) 17.9 (10.2) 0.012* 
MPCPIDP
Overall study    
 Glucose (mg/dL) 138 (20.40) 160 (31.5) 0.012* 
 Glucose at 7:00 a.m. (mg/dL) 119 (28.0) 135 (51.7) 0.229 
 % time <70 mg/dL 4.6 (4.65) 2.93 (5.92) 0.329 
 % time 80–140 mg/dL 49.8 (13.1) 36.5 (17.1) 0.009* 
 % time >180 mg/dL 21.0 (12.1) 33.3 (19.1) 0.020* 
 % time 70–180 mg/dL 74.4 (11.0) 63.7 (16.4) 0.021* 
 No. of <70 mg/dL events >15 min 2.75 (3.02) 1.75 (4.05) 0.382 
 No. of treatments 2.60 (2.68) 1.60 (2.68) 0.246 
 LBGI 1.21 (0.86) 0.82 (1.09) 0.222 
 HBGI 4.40 (2.56) 7.51 (4.52) 0.011* 
Overnight only    
 Glucose (mg/dL) 109 (15.1) 126 (35.9) 0.058 
 % time <70 mg/dL 7.29 (10.2) 3.59 (9.18) 0.235 
 % time 80–140 mg/dL 70.2 (23.3) 57.9 (34.2) 0.189 
 % time >180 mg/dL 3.59 (7.37) 12.7 (22.7) 0.095 
 % time 70–180 mg/dL 89.1 (12.4) 83.7 (22.4) 0.351 
 No. of <70 mg/dL events >15 min 1.25 (2.00) 0.65 (1.81) 0.326 
 No. of treatments 1.05 (1.36) 0.35 (0.81) 0.055 
 LBGI 1.94 (1.74) 1.18 (1.73) 0.173 
 HBGI 0.96 (1.30) 2.48 (3.58) 0.082 
5-hour postprandial period after unannounced meal (65 g CHO)    
 Mean glucose (mg/dL) 181 (42.0) 220 (55.9) 0.019* 
 Max Δglucose (mg/dL) 146 (44.3) 142 (43.1) 0.774 
 % time <70 mg/dL 1.89 (3.58) 1.64 (5.70) 0.871 
 % time 80–140 mg/dL 22.2 (18.7) 13.7 (18.9) 0.160 
 % time >180 mg/dL 52.0 (30.3) 66.9 (31.6) 0.135 
 % time 70–180 mg/dL 46.1 (28.8) 31.5 (28.8) 0.116 
 Minutes to <180 mg/dL 157 (92.5) 188 (102) 0.313 
 HBGI 10.6 (6.91) 17.9 (10.2) 0.012* 

Data are means (SD). Sessions include a 65-g carbohydrate dinner, a 50-g carbohydrate breakfast, and an unannounced 65-g carbohydrate lunch. CHO, carbohydrate; LBGI, low BG index.

*Significance with α = 0.05.

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