Table 2

Effects of acute events and chronic type 2 diabetes complications on total costs per quarter in GEE normal regression

VariableCoefficient estimate (SE)
Constant 779.7*** (7.9) 
Sex: male (Ref = female) −57.1*** (6.3) 
Age-group (Ref = 70–79 years), years  
 <50 −128.3*** (12.6) 
 50–59 −116.3*** (9.2) 
 60–69 −69.2*** (8.4) 
 >80 −195.1*** (12.0) 
VariableCoefficient estimate (SE)
Constant 779.7*** (7.9) 
Sex: male (Ref = female) −57.1*** (6.3) 
Age-group (Ref = 70–79 years), years  
 <50 −128.3*** (12.6) 
 50–59 −116.3*** (9.2) 
 60–69 −69.2*** (8.4) 
 >80 −195.1*** (12.0) 
Coefficient estimate (SE)
Event/condition (Ref = no)Quarter/time of event<1 year after the event>1 year after the event
 Diabetic foot 639.3*** (30.8) 369.2*** (17.0) 356.0*** (23.0) 
 Amputation 13,630.3*** (482.0) 2,665.9*** (168.8) 1,967.9*** (319.3) 
 Retinopathy 17.5 (16.0) 27.2 (14.2) 39.1* (18.0) 
 Blindness 2,279.9 (177.3) 487.1 (67.6) 316.2 (80.3) 
 Nephropathy 2,699.3*** (47.2) 702.0*** (19.3) 432.7*** (21.4) 
 ESRD 22,037.6*** (700.4) 5,476.4*** (195.5) 4,605.9*** (293.0) 
 Fatal MI 8,046.2*** (950.8) NA NA 
 Nonfatal MI 7,381.7*** (152.6) 820.8*** (73.5) 220.6** (71.3) 
 Fatal IHD 20,288.4*** (5,251.3) NA NA 
 Nonfatal IHD 5,894.9*** (141.4) 523.3*** (69.9) 171.2*** (52.3) 
 CHF 3,258.5*** (55.3) 868.7*** (24.0) 549.7*** (24.4) 
 Fatal stroke 10,522.9*** (903.5) NA NA 
 Nonfatal stroke 9,115.6*** (155.5) 2,168.8*** (88.7) 642.6*** (54.8) 
 Angina pectoris 2,041.9*** (50.4) 242.2*** (27.6) 106.3** (35.7) 
 Death for other reasons 5,589.0*** (124.2) NA NA 
Coefficient estimate (SE)
Event/condition (Ref = no)Quarter/time of event<1 year after the event>1 year after the event
 Diabetic foot 639.3*** (30.8) 369.2*** (17.0) 356.0*** (23.0) 
 Amputation 13,630.3*** (482.0) 2,665.9*** (168.8) 1,967.9*** (319.3) 
 Retinopathy 17.5 (16.0) 27.2 (14.2) 39.1* (18.0) 
 Blindness 2,279.9 (177.3) 487.1 (67.6) 316.2 (80.3) 
 Nephropathy 2,699.3*** (47.2) 702.0*** (19.3) 432.7*** (21.4) 
 ESRD 22,037.6*** (700.4) 5,476.4*** (195.5) 4,605.9*** (293.0) 
 Fatal MI 8,046.2*** (950.8) NA NA 
 Nonfatal MI 7,381.7*** (152.6) 820.8*** (73.5) 220.6** (71.3) 
 Fatal IHD 20,288.4*** (5,251.3) NA NA 
 Nonfatal IHD 5,894.9*** (141.4) 523.3*** (69.9) 171.2*** (52.3) 
 CHF 3,258.5*** (55.3) 868.7*** (24.0) 549.7*** (24.4) 
 Fatal stroke 10,522.9*** (903.5) NA NA 
 Nonfatal stroke 9,115.6*** (155.5) 2,168.8*** (88.7) 642.6*** (54.8) 
 Angina pectoris 2,041.9*** (50.4) 242.2*** (27.6) 106.3** (35.7) 
 Death for other reasons 5,589.0*** (124.2) NA NA 
History in 2012 (Ref = no)Coefficient estimate (SE)
 Diabetic foot 372.5*** (13.9) 
 Amputation 2,017.4*** (171.1) 
 Retinopathy 63.2*** (9.3) 
 Blindness 196.2*** (47.5) 
 Nephropathy 408.8*** (11.1) 
 ESRD 6,902.3*** (164.3) 
 Nonfatal MI 52.1 (46.3) 
 Nonfatal IHD 566.1*** (25.4) 
 CHF 532.6*** (12.8) 
 Angina pectoris −11.6 (19.4) 
 Nonfatal stroke 635.2*** (46.5) 
Number of observations 3,663,240 
Number of patients 316,220 
History in 2012 (Ref = no)Coefficient estimate (SE)
 Diabetic foot 372.5*** (13.9) 
 Amputation 2,017.4*** (171.1) 
 Retinopathy 63.2*** (9.3) 
 Blindness 196.2*** (47.5) 
 Nephropathy 408.8*** (11.1) 
 ESRD 6,902.3*** (164.3) 
 Nonfatal MI 52.1 (46.3) 
 Nonfatal IHD 566.1*** (25.4) 
 CHF 532.6*** (12.8) 
 Angina pectoris −11.6 (19.4) 
 Nonfatal stroke 635.2*** (46.5) 
Number of observations 3,663,240 
Number of patients 316,220 

NA, not applicable; Ref, reference.

*P <0.05.

**P <0.01.

***P <0.001.

†The interactions between age and sex as well as threefold interactions with complications are omitted here for visibility reasons. The extended model as well as estimated costs by age-group and sex can be found in Supplementary Tables 7 and 8.

‡“Event” refers to the quarter when the diabetes complication first occurred/started.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal