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Table 1

Characteristics of cohort study participants stratified by diabetes type and DEB status*

CharacteristicsType 1 diabetes (n = 2,156)
Type 2 diabetes (n = 149)
DEB (n = 458)No DEB (n = 1,698)P valueDEB (n = 75)No DEB (n = 74)P value
Age, years 18.2 ± 3.8 17.6 ± 4.4 <0.01 21.1 ± 3.3 22.6 ± 3.6 <0.01 
Male sex (%) 28.8 55.2 <0.01 32.0 39.2 0.36 
Race/ethnicity (%)       
 Non-Hispanic black 18.1 8.6 <0.01 56.0 45.9 0.58 
 Hispanic 13.5 11.0  18.7 25.6  
 White 66.4 78.0  21.3 21.7  
 Other 2.0 2.4  4.0 6.8  
BMI, kg/m2 26.1 ± 5.3 23.2 ± 4.8 <0.01 37.8 ± 9.4 31.8 ± 8.7 <0.01 
BMIz 1.0 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.9 <0.01 2.0 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 1.1 <0.01 
Glycemic control       
 HbA1c, % 10.2 ± 2.0 8.9 ± 1.7 <0.01 11.0 ± 2.3 9.8 ± 2.5 <0.01 
Total daily insulin, units/kg/day 0.9 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.4 0.55 0.7 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.5 0.22 
CGM use (%) 4.1 14.9 0.38 14.8 16.1 0.76 
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (%)       
 Less than once a week 15.2 0.0 <0.01 37.9 25.4 0.15 
 Less than once a day 0.0 10.0  0.0 0.0  
 1–2 times/day 17.2 14.9  34.9 26.9  
 3 times/day 17.9 54.2  15.2 26.9  
 4–6 times/day 43.7 9.9  10.6 19.4  
 ≥7 times/day 6.0   1.4 1.4  
IS score 5.2 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 2.5 <0.01 2.5 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.9 <0.01 
DKA (≥1 episode) in preceding 6 months (%) 12.0 4.7 <0.01 5.3 4.1 NS 
CES-D score 16.7 ± 10.3 8.3 ± 7.5 <0.01 20.9 ± 11.0 11.9 ± 10.5 <0.01 
PedsQL score 72.4 ± 14.6 84.8 ± 11.8 <0.01 68.7 ± 17.4 80.8 ± 16.7 <0.01 
CharacteristicsType 1 diabetes (n = 2,156)
Type 2 diabetes (n = 149)
DEB (n = 458)No DEB (n = 1,698)P valueDEB (n = 75)No DEB (n = 74)P value
Age, years 18.2 ± 3.8 17.6 ± 4.4 <0.01 21.1 ± 3.3 22.6 ± 3.6 <0.01 
Male sex (%) 28.8 55.2 <0.01 32.0 39.2 0.36 
Race/ethnicity (%)       
 Non-Hispanic black 18.1 8.6 <0.01 56.0 45.9 0.58 
 Hispanic 13.5 11.0  18.7 25.6  
 White 66.4 78.0  21.3 21.7  
 Other 2.0 2.4  4.0 6.8  
BMI, kg/m2 26.1 ± 5.3 23.2 ± 4.8 <0.01 37.8 ± 9.4 31.8 ± 8.7 <0.01 
BMIz 1.0 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.9 <0.01 2.0 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 1.1 <0.01 
Glycemic control       
 HbA1c, % 10.2 ± 2.0 8.9 ± 1.7 <0.01 11.0 ± 2.3 9.8 ± 2.5 <0.01 
Total daily insulin, units/kg/day 0.9 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.4 0.55 0.7 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.5 0.22 
CGM use (%) 4.1 14.9 0.38 14.8 16.1 0.76 
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (%)       
 Less than once a week 15.2 0.0 <0.01 37.9 25.4 0.15 
 Less than once a day 0.0 10.0  0.0 0.0  
 1–2 times/day 17.2 14.9  34.9 26.9  
 3 times/day 17.9 54.2  15.2 26.9  
 4–6 times/day 43.7 9.9  10.6 19.4  
 ≥7 times/day 6.0   1.4 1.4  
IS score 5.2 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 2.5 <0.01 2.5 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.9 <0.01 
DKA (≥1 episode) in preceding 6 months (%) 12.0 4.7 <0.01 5.3 4.1 NS 
CES-D score 16.7 ± 10.3 8.3 ± 7.5 <0.01 20.9 ± 11.0 11.9 ± 10.5 <0.01 
PedsQL score 72.4 ± 14.6 84.8 ± 11.8 <0.01 68.7 ± 17.4 80.8 ± 16.7 <0.01 

Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

*DEB status is based on DEPS-R category.

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