Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Characteristics and cardiometabolic outcomes at 7 years of age between the offspring of mothers with normal glucose tolerance and mothers with GDM

Offspring
Mothers with NGT (n = 794)Mothers with GDM (n = 132)P value
Anthropometry    
 Children’s age (years), median (interquartile range) 7.0 (6.7–7.2) 6.9 (6.6–7.2) 0.03 
 BMI (kg/m2)* 15.0 ± 2.3 15.3 ± 2.1 0.04 
 BMI percentile 42.6 ± 31.1 50.9 ± 32.0 0.01 
 Obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) 67 (8.4) 9 (6.8) 0.53 
 Overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile)    
  Overall 121 (15.3) 30 (22.7) 0.03 
  Boys 73 (17.2) 13 (22.8) 0.30 
  Girls 48 (13.0) 17 (22.7) 0.03 
 Waist-to-hip ratio* 0.84 ± 0.05 0.84 ± 0.04 0.64 
 Sum of skinfold thickness (mm)*    
  Overall 35.8 ± 17.4 38.7 ± 15.7 0.07 
  Boys 35.2 ± 18.2 35.6 ± 15.4 0.71 
  Girls 36.4 ± 16.5 41.0 ± 15.5 0.03 
Glycemia and insulin    
 PG (mmol/L)    
  Fasting 4.57 ± 0.35 4.64 ± 0.49 0.12 
  15 min 7.03 ± 1.16 7.20 ± 1.30 0.14 
  30 min 7.54 ± 1.49 7.99 ± 1.58 0.002 
  60 min 5.87 ± 1.51 6.30 ± 1.66 0.004 
  120 min 5.29 ± 0.97 5.39 ± 0.96 0.26 
 AUC(G)    
  Overall 732 ± 118 768 ± 121 0.002 
  Boys 731 ± 118 769 ± 115 0.03 
  Girls 734 ± 119 766 ± 127 0.04 
Children’s glycemic status    
 IFG and/or IGT 13 (1.7) 5 (3.9) 0.04 
 DM 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 0.04 
 Fasting plasma insulin (mIU/L) 4.07 ± 5.33 3.77 ± 3.57 0.53 
 Fasting C-peptide (µg/L) 0.38 ± 0.43 0.32 ± 0.37 0.14 
 Matsuda ISI 16.2 ± 8.9 15.0 ± 8.3 0.14 
 HOMA-BCF 77.6 ± 72.8 71.4 ± 65.2 0.38 
 Insulinogenic index at 30 min 81.0 ± 94.2 67.8 ± 65.0 0.05 
 Oral disposition index 7.98 ± 9.43 6.62 ± 5.95 0.04 
Lipid profile    
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.47 ± 0.74 4.52 ± 0.68 0.41 
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.66 ± 0.35 1.65 ± 0.31 0.73 
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.47 ± 0.64 2.53 ± 0.61 0.33 
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 0.74 ± 0.33 0.78 ± 0.34 0.24 
 Dyslipidemia 63 (8.2) 11 (8.4) 0.94 
BP (mmHg)    
 SBP* 102 ± 8.9 104 ± 8.7 0.01 
 DBP* 62 ± 7.9 63 ± 8.1 0.06 
 SBP at age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile 60 ± 24 66 ± 22 0.01 
 DBP at age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile 60 ± 22 64 ± 22 0.02 
 Hypertension (BP ≥95th percentile) 63 (8.0) 11 (8.3) 0.89 
 Prehypertension (BP 90th to <95th percentile) 50 (6.3) 11 (8.3) 0.51 
Offspring
Mothers with NGT (n = 794)Mothers with GDM (n = 132)P value
Anthropometry    
 Children’s age (years), median (interquartile range) 7.0 (6.7–7.2) 6.9 (6.6–7.2) 0.03 
 BMI (kg/m2)* 15.0 ± 2.3 15.3 ± 2.1 0.04 
 BMI percentile 42.6 ± 31.1 50.9 ± 32.0 0.01 
 Obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) 67 (8.4) 9 (6.8) 0.53 
 Overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile)    
  Overall 121 (15.3) 30 (22.7) 0.03 
  Boys 73 (17.2) 13 (22.8) 0.30 
  Girls 48 (13.0) 17 (22.7) 0.03 
 Waist-to-hip ratio* 0.84 ± 0.05 0.84 ± 0.04 0.64 
 Sum of skinfold thickness (mm)*    
  Overall 35.8 ± 17.4 38.7 ± 15.7 0.07 
  Boys 35.2 ± 18.2 35.6 ± 15.4 0.71 
  Girls 36.4 ± 16.5 41.0 ± 15.5 0.03 
Glycemia and insulin    
 PG (mmol/L)    
  Fasting 4.57 ± 0.35 4.64 ± 0.49 0.12 
  15 min 7.03 ± 1.16 7.20 ± 1.30 0.14 
  30 min 7.54 ± 1.49 7.99 ± 1.58 0.002 
  60 min 5.87 ± 1.51 6.30 ± 1.66 0.004 
  120 min 5.29 ± 0.97 5.39 ± 0.96 0.26 
 AUC(G)    
  Overall 732 ± 118 768 ± 121 0.002 
  Boys 731 ± 118 769 ± 115 0.03 
  Girls 734 ± 119 766 ± 127 0.04 
Children’s glycemic status    
 IFG and/or IGT 13 (1.7) 5 (3.9) 0.04 
 DM 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 0.04 
 Fasting plasma insulin (mIU/L) 4.07 ± 5.33 3.77 ± 3.57 0.53 
 Fasting C-peptide (µg/L) 0.38 ± 0.43 0.32 ± 0.37 0.14 
 Matsuda ISI 16.2 ± 8.9 15.0 ± 8.3 0.14 
 HOMA-BCF 77.6 ± 72.8 71.4 ± 65.2 0.38 
 Insulinogenic index at 30 min 81.0 ± 94.2 67.8 ± 65.0 0.05 
 Oral disposition index 7.98 ± 9.43 6.62 ± 5.95 0.04 
Lipid profile    
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.47 ± 0.74 4.52 ± 0.68 0.41 
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.66 ± 0.35 1.65 ± 0.31 0.73 
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.47 ± 0.64 2.53 ± 0.61 0.33 
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 0.74 ± 0.33 0.78 ± 0.34 0.24 
 Dyslipidemia 63 (8.2) 11 (8.4) 0.94 
BP (mmHg)    
 SBP* 102 ± 8.9 104 ± 8.7 0.01 
 DBP* 62 ± 7.9 63 ± 8.1 0.06 
 SBP at age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile 60 ± 24 66 ± 22 0.01 
 DBP at age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile 60 ± 22 64 ± 22 0.02 
 Hypertension (BP ≥95th percentile) 63 (8.0) 11 (8.3) 0.89 
 Prehypertension (BP 90th to <95th percentile) 50 (6.3) 11 (8.3) 0.51 

Data are mean ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. BCF, β-cell function; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

*Between-group comparison by ANCOVA after adjustment for age and/or sex as appropriate.

†χ2 test based on the rate of abnormal glucose tolerance.

‡Triglyceride ≥1.7 mmol/L or LDL cholesterol ≥3.4 mmol/L.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal