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Table 3

Secondary outcomes

Secondary outcomesn
Summary
Effect (95% CI)P
PlaceboProbioticPlaceboProbiotic
Mother       
 Preeclampsia* 203 206 10 (4.9) 19 (9.2) 2.00 (0.89–4.50) 0.09 
 Gestational hypertension* 203 206 11 (5.4) 10 (4.9) 0.86 (0.35–2.09) 0.74 
 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy* 203 206 26 (12.8) 34 (16.5) 1.35 (0.76–2.37) 0.30 
 Cesarean* 204 207 80 (39.2) 73 (35.3) 0.85 (0.56–1.27) 0.41 
 In labor/intrapartum/emergency caesarean* 78 73 36 (46.2) 33 (45.2) 1.00 (0.52–1.93) 1.00 
 Induced labor* 202 206 62 (30.7) 74 (35.9) 1.23 (0.81–1.87) 0.34 
 28 weeks systolic BP (mmHg) 196 197 110.3 (10.6) 110.4 (9.9) 0.003 (−1.90 to 1.91) 1.00 
 28 weeks diastolic BP (mmHg) 196 197 65.0 (7.6) 66.4 (7.8) 1.36 (−0.11 to 2.84) 0.070 
 36 weeks systolic BP (mmHg) 177 169 114.0 (10.6) 115.7 (11.3) 1.62 (−0.66 to 3.90) 0.16 
 36 weeks diastolic BP (mmHg) 177 169 70.5 (8.3) 70.9 (9.8) 0.51 (−1.35 to 2.37) 0.59 
 36 weeks weight gain from baseline (kg) 176 169 9.5 (4.3) 8.9 (5.3) −0.55 (−1.55 to 0.45) 0.28 
 Excess weight gain* 176 169 81 (46) 55 (32.5) 0.56 (0.36–0.87) 0.01 
 Inadequate weight gain   28 (15.9) 34 (20.1)   
 Weight gain per week from baseline to 36 weeks (kg/week) 176 169 0.40 (0.19) 0.37 (0.23) −0.03 (−0.08 to 0.01) 0.17 
Infant       
 Gestational age at delivery (weeks) 180 193 39.32 (1.75) 39.14 (1.88) −0.18 (−0.55 to 0.19) 0.34 
 Very preterm (<34 weeks)* 180 193 3 (1.7) 5 (2.6) 1.59 (0.37–6.85) 0.53 
 Preterm (<37 weeks)* 180 193 12 (6.7) 17 (8.8) 1.36 (0.63–2.96) 0.43 
 Special care unit admission* 199 207 43 (21.6) 42 (20.3) 0.92 (0.57–1.50) 0.75 
 Jaundice* 201 205 40 (19.9) 35 (17.1) 0.82 (0.50–1.36) 0.45 
 Birth injury* 198 203 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5) — — 
 Hypoglycemia* 200 202 27 (13.5) 25 (12.4) 0.90 (0.50–1.63) 0.73 
 Stillbirth* 204 207 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) — — 
 Congenital abnormality* 201 204 6 (3.0) 10 (4.9) 1.70 (0.60–4.80) 0.32 
 Macrosomia (>4,000 g)* 203 206 35 (17.2) 31 (15.0) 0.85 (0.50–1.45) 0.56 
 Macrosomia (>4,500 g)* 203 206 2 (1.0) 7 (3.4) — — 
 Large for gestational age (>90th percentile)* 180 193 30 (16.7) 35 (18.1) 1.09 (0.64–1.88) 0.75 
 SGA (<2,500 g)* 203 206 6 (3.0) 7 (3.4) 1.15 (0.38–3.50) 0.81 
 SGA (<10th percentile)* 199 205 13 (6.5) 5 (2.4) 0.33 (0.12–0.96) 0.042 
 Birth weight (g) 203 206 3,541 (514) 3,524 (540) −15.55 (−118.24 to 87.15) 0.77 
 Fat-free mass (g) 105 103 3,011 (357) 3,033 (356) 21.27 (−76.66 to 119.20) 0.67 
 Percentage fat 105 105 12.3 (3.6) 12.2 (4.4) −0.13 (−1.23 to 0.97) 0.82 
Secondary outcomesn
Summary
Effect (95% CI)P
PlaceboProbioticPlaceboProbiotic
Mother       
 Preeclampsia* 203 206 10 (4.9) 19 (9.2) 2.00 (0.89–4.50) 0.09 
 Gestational hypertension* 203 206 11 (5.4) 10 (4.9) 0.86 (0.35–2.09) 0.74 
 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy* 203 206 26 (12.8) 34 (16.5) 1.35 (0.76–2.37) 0.30 
 Cesarean* 204 207 80 (39.2) 73 (35.3) 0.85 (0.56–1.27) 0.41 
 In labor/intrapartum/emergency caesarean* 78 73 36 (46.2) 33 (45.2) 1.00 (0.52–1.93) 1.00 
 Induced labor* 202 206 62 (30.7) 74 (35.9) 1.23 (0.81–1.87) 0.34 
 28 weeks systolic BP (mmHg) 196 197 110.3 (10.6) 110.4 (9.9) 0.003 (−1.90 to 1.91) 1.00 
 28 weeks diastolic BP (mmHg) 196 197 65.0 (7.6) 66.4 (7.8) 1.36 (−0.11 to 2.84) 0.070 
 36 weeks systolic BP (mmHg) 177 169 114.0 (10.6) 115.7 (11.3) 1.62 (−0.66 to 3.90) 0.16 
 36 weeks diastolic BP (mmHg) 177 169 70.5 (8.3) 70.9 (9.8) 0.51 (−1.35 to 2.37) 0.59 
 36 weeks weight gain from baseline (kg) 176 169 9.5 (4.3) 8.9 (5.3) −0.55 (−1.55 to 0.45) 0.28 
 Excess weight gain* 176 169 81 (46) 55 (32.5) 0.56 (0.36–0.87) 0.01 
 Inadequate weight gain   28 (15.9) 34 (20.1)   
 Weight gain per week from baseline to 36 weeks (kg/week) 176 169 0.40 (0.19) 0.37 (0.23) −0.03 (−0.08 to 0.01) 0.17 
Infant       
 Gestational age at delivery (weeks) 180 193 39.32 (1.75) 39.14 (1.88) −0.18 (−0.55 to 0.19) 0.34 
 Very preterm (<34 weeks)* 180 193 3 (1.7) 5 (2.6) 1.59 (0.37–6.85) 0.53 
 Preterm (<37 weeks)* 180 193 12 (6.7) 17 (8.8) 1.36 (0.63–2.96) 0.43 
 Special care unit admission* 199 207 43 (21.6) 42 (20.3) 0.92 (0.57–1.50) 0.75 
 Jaundice* 201 205 40 (19.9) 35 (17.1) 0.82 (0.50–1.36) 0.45 
 Birth injury* 198 203 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5) — — 
 Hypoglycemia* 200 202 27 (13.5) 25 (12.4) 0.90 (0.50–1.63) 0.73 
 Stillbirth* 204 207 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) — — 
 Congenital abnormality* 201 204 6 (3.0) 10 (4.9) 1.70 (0.60–4.80) 0.32 
 Macrosomia (>4,000 g)* 203 206 35 (17.2) 31 (15.0) 0.85 (0.50–1.45) 0.56 
 Macrosomia (>4,500 g)* 203 206 2 (1.0) 7 (3.4) — — 
 Large for gestational age (>90th percentile)* 180 193 30 (16.7) 35 (18.1) 1.09 (0.64–1.88) 0.75 
 SGA (<2,500 g)* 203 206 6 (3.0) 7 (3.4) 1.15 (0.38–3.50) 0.81 
 SGA (<10th percentile)* 199 205 13 (6.5) 5 (2.4) 0.33 (0.12–0.96) 0.042 
 Birth weight (g) 203 206 3,541 (514) 3,524 (540) −15.55 (−118.24 to 87.15) 0.77 
 Fat-free mass (g) 105 103 3,011 (357) 3,033 (356) 21.27 (−76.66 to 119.20) 0.67 
 Percentage fat 105 105 12.3 (3.6) 12.2 (4.4) −0.13 (−1.23 to 0.97) 0.82 

*Summary columns: n (%). Effect: odds ratio.

†Summary columns: mean (SD). Effect: difference of means.

‡Adjusted for BMI (25–29, 30–39, and 40+ kg/m2) and patient center (RBWH, Redcliffe, Mater).

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