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Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to trial group

Placebo group (n = 204)Probiotics group (n = 207)
Age (years) 31.7 (4.8) 31.3 (4.7) 
Age ≥35 years* 57 (27.9) 54 (26.1) 
Caucasian* 171 (83.8) 186 (89.9) 
Patient center*   
 Mater 97 (47.5) 101 (48.8) 
 Redcliffe 16 (7.8) 18 (8.7) 
 RBWH 91 (44.6) 88 (42.5) 
Gestational age at enrollment (weeks)§ 16.0 (1.4) 15.9 (1.5) 
Gestational age at enrollment*§   
 12–13 weeks 7 (3.8) 14 (7.3) 
 14–16 weeks 154 (83.2) 146 (76.4) 
 17–19 weeks 24 (13.0) 31 (16.2) 
Tertiary educated* 95 (46.6) 98 (47.3) 
Current smoker*§ 6 (3.0) 8 (3.9) 
Nulliparous* 85 (41.7) 74 (35.7) 
BMI (kg/m2)*   
 25–29 76 (37.3) 66 (31.9) 
 30–39 101 (49.5) 114 (55.1) 
 40+ 27 (13.2) 27 (13.0) 
BMI (kg/m2) 31.6 (7.2) 31.9 (7.5) 
Systolic BP (mmHg)§ 109.3 (9.6) 109.6 (10.1) 
Diastolic BP (mmHg)§ 67.0 (7.8) 67.2 (7.9) 
Previous GDM*§ 10 (6.7) 12 (7.9) 
Family history of diabetes*§ 60 (30.3) 52 (25.4) 
Chronic hypertension*§ 5 (2.5) 6 (2.9) 
Alcohol use in pregnancy*§ 12 (5.9) 8 (3.9) 
Placebo group (n = 204)Probiotics group (n = 207)
Age (years) 31.7 (4.8) 31.3 (4.7) 
Age ≥35 years* 57 (27.9) 54 (26.1) 
Caucasian* 171 (83.8) 186 (89.9) 
Patient center*   
 Mater 97 (47.5) 101 (48.8) 
 Redcliffe 16 (7.8) 18 (8.7) 
 RBWH 91 (44.6) 88 (42.5) 
Gestational age at enrollment (weeks)§ 16.0 (1.4) 15.9 (1.5) 
Gestational age at enrollment*§   
 12–13 weeks 7 (3.8) 14 (7.3) 
 14–16 weeks 154 (83.2) 146 (76.4) 
 17–19 weeks 24 (13.0) 31 (16.2) 
Tertiary educated* 95 (46.6) 98 (47.3) 
Current smoker*§ 6 (3.0) 8 (3.9) 
Nulliparous* 85 (41.7) 74 (35.7) 
BMI (kg/m2)*   
 25–29 76 (37.3) 66 (31.9) 
 30–39 101 (49.5) 114 (55.1) 
 40+ 27 (13.2) 27 (13.0) 
BMI (kg/m2) 31.6 (7.2) 31.9 (7.5) 
Systolic BP (mmHg)§ 109.3 (9.6) 109.6 (10.1) 
Diastolic BP (mmHg)§ 67.0 (7.8) 67.2 (7.9) 
Previous GDM*§ 10 (6.7) 12 (7.9) 
Family history of diabetes*§ 60 (30.3) 52 (25.4) 
Chronic hypertension*§ 5 (2.5) 6 (2.9) 
Alcohol use in pregnancy*§ 12 (5.9) 8 (3.9) 

BP, blood pressure.

*n (%).

†Mean (SD).

‡Median (IQR).

§Gestational age at enrollment nplacebo = 185, nprobiotics = 191; current smoker nplacebo = 203, nprobiotics = 207; systolic blood pressure, diastolic pressure, and chronic hypertension nplacebo = 202, nprobiotics = 206; previous GDM nplacebo = 149, nprobiotics = 152; family history of GDM nplacebo = 198, nprobiotics = 205; alcohol use in pregnancy nplacebo = 203, nprobiotics = 206.

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