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Table 3

Differences in cognitive scores between none/mild and moderate/severe DKA groups based on longitudinal mixed-effects modeling

Group effect at Tb
Group effect at T18
Group effect at T18 vs. Tb (slope difference)
BatterySubscaleEstimateP valueCohen d*EstimateP valueCohen d*EstimateP valueCohen d*
IQ WPPSI3/WASI Full Scale IQ Child Standard Score −3.990 0.136 −0.325 −5.816 0.030 −0.473 −1.826 0.342 −0.149 
 Verbal IQ Child Standard Score −5.545 0.050 −0.425 −3.837 0.182 −0.294 1.709 0.478 0.131 
 Performance IQ Child Standard Score −2.141 0.485 −0.150 −5.622 0.071 −0.395 −3.481 0.155 −0.245 
 Vocabulary Child Scaled Score −1.384 0.014 −0.542 −0.613 0.279 −0.240 0.771 0.150 0.302 
 Block Design Child Scaled Score −0.607 0.368 −0.188 −1.005 0.136 −0.311 −0.398 0.496 −0.123 
 Similarities Child Scaled Score −0.546 0.308 −0.225 −0.849 0.113 −0.349 −0.303 0.579 −0.125 
 Matrix Reasoning Child Scaled Score 0.178 0.758 0.064 −0.932 0.107 −0.335 −1.110 0.050 −0.399 
Executive functions CPT2 Detectability T-Score 0.505 0.790 0.053 3.901 0.038 0.412 3.395 0.122 0.359 
 Commissions T-Score 1.447 0.432 0.156 4.861 0.008 0.524 3.415 0.088 0.368 
NEPSYII Auditory Attention Total Corrected Scaled Score 0.075 0.909 0.026 −0.530 0.372 −0.181 −0.605 0.432 −0.207 
WJIII Cognitive Concept Formation Standard Score −3.063 0.261 −0.245 −3.326 0.221 −0.266 −0.263 0.921 −0.021 
CMS Numbers Total Scaled Score −0.425 0.494 −0.162 0.152 0.782 0.058 0.577 0.340 0.221 
Processing speed WJIII Cognitive Decision Speed Standard Score 1.100 0.714 0.072 −1.744 0.559 −0.115 −2.844 0.355 −0.187 
 Visual Match II Standard Score −4.181 0.176 −0.282 −2.052 0.479 −0.138 2.130 0.435 0.143 
 Processing Speed Standard Score −2.814 0.356 −0.187 −1.803 0.553 −0.120 1.011 0.684 0.067 
Learning and memory CMS Word List Total Learning Raw Score −0.890 0.501 −0.118 −0.455 0.729 −0.061 0.435 0.762 0.058 
 Word List Immediate Recall Raw Score −0.164 0.724 −0.066 0.073 0.875 0.030 0.237 0.665 0.096 
 Word List Delayed Raw Score −0.612 0.197 −0.249 −0.067 0.887 −0.027 0.545 0.294 0.222 
 Word List Delayed Recognition Raw Score −2.039 0.002 −0.593 −0.559 0.391 −0.163 1.480 0.101 0.431 
 Dots Location Learning Raw Score −0.479 0.406 −0.139 −0.348 0.548 −0.101 0.131 0.861 0.038 
 Dots Location Total Score Raw Score −0.469 0.543 −0.103 −1.172 0.136 −0.257 −0.703 0.472 −0.154 
 Dots Location Immediate Raw Score 0.005 0.986 0.003 −0.602 0.033 −0.373 −0.607 0.087 −0.376 
 Dots Location Delayed Raw Score 0.226 0.432 0.139 −0.659 0.023 −0.405 −0.886 0.021 −0.545 
Group effect at Tb
Group effect at T18
Group effect at T18 vs. Tb (slope difference)
BatterySubscaleEstimateP valueCohen d*EstimateP valueCohen d*EstimateP valueCohen d*
IQ WPPSI3/WASI Full Scale IQ Child Standard Score −3.990 0.136 −0.325 −5.816 0.030 −0.473 −1.826 0.342 −0.149 
 Verbal IQ Child Standard Score −5.545 0.050 −0.425 −3.837 0.182 −0.294 1.709 0.478 0.131 
 Performance IQ Child Standard Score −2.141 0.485 −0.150 −5.622 0.071 −0.395 −3.481 0.155 −0.245 
 Vocabulary Child Scaled Score −1.384 0.014 −0.542 −0.613 0.279 −0.240 0.771 0.150 0.302 
 Block Design Child Scaled Score −0.607 0.368 −0.188 −1.005 0.136 −0.311 −0.398 0.496 −0.123 
 Similarities Child Scaled Score −0.546 0.308 −0.225 −0.849 0.113 −0.349 −0.303 0.579 −0.125 
 Matrix Reasoning Child Scaled Score 0.178 0.758 0.064 −0.932 0.107 −0.335 −1.110 0.050 −0.399 
Executive functions CPT2 Detectability T-Score 0.505 0.790 0.053 3.901 0.038 0.412 3.395 0.122 0.359 
 Commissions T-Score 1.447 0.432 0.156 4.861 0.008 0.524 3.415 0.088 0.368 
NEPSYII Auditory Attention Total Corrected Scaled Score 0.075 0.909 0.026 −0.530 0.372 −0.181 −0.605 0.432 −0.207 
WJIII Cognitive Concept Formation Standard Score −3.063 0.261 −0.245 −3.326 0.221 −0.266 −0.263 0.921 −0.021 
CMS Numbers Total Scaled Score −0.425 0.494 −0.162 0.152 0.782 0.058 0.577 0.340 0.221 
Processing speed WJIII Cognitive Decision Speed Standard Score 1.100 0.714 0.072 −1.744 0.559 −0.115 −2.844 0.355 −0.187 
 Visual Match II Standard Score −4.181 0.176 −0.282 −2.052 0.479 −0.138 2.130 0.435 0.143 
 Processing Speed Standard Score −2.814 0.356 −0.187 −1.803 0.553 −0.120 1.011 0.684 0.067 
Learning and memory CMS Word List Total Learning Raw Score −0.890 0.501 −0.118 −0.455 0.729 −0.061 0.435 0.762 0.058 
 Word List Immediate Recall Raw Score −0.164 0.724 −0.066 0.073 0.875 0.030 0.237 0.665 0.096 
 Word List Delayed Raw Score −0.612 0.197 −0.249 −0.067 0.887 −0.027 0.545 0.294 0.222 
 Word List Delayed Recognition Raw Score −2.039 0.002 −0.593 −0.559 0.391 −0.163 1.480 0.101 0.431 
 Dots Location Learning Raw Score −0.479 0.406 −0.139 −0.348 0.548 −0.101 0.131 0.861 0.038 
 Dots Location Total Score Raw Score −0.469 0.543 −0.103 −1.172 0.136 −0.257 −0.703 0.472 −0.154 
 Dots Location Immediate Raw Score 0.005 0.986 0.003 −0.602 0.033 −0.373 −0.607 0.087 −0.376 
 Dots Location Delayed Raw Score 0.226 0.432 0.139 −0.659 0.023 −0.405 −0.886 0.021 −0.545 

Bold values are statistically significant. CMS, Children’s Memory Scale; NEPSY, Neuropsychological Assessment; WASI, Wechsler Adult

Scale of Intelligence; WJIII, Woodcock-Johnson III; WPPSI3, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition.

*Cohen d is calculated based on observed SD at T18 pooled across the two groups.

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