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Table 1

Characteristics of study subjects

Unmatched
Matched for HbA1c and age
None/mild
Moderate/severe
None/mild
Moderate/severe
n = 98n = 30P valuesn = 30n = 30P values
Demographics       
 Sex      0.07 
  Male 55 11  18 11  
  Female 43 19  12 19  
 Age at baseline (years) 7.18 (1.7) 6.35 (1.4) 0.02 6.38 (1.5) 6.35 (1.4) 0.94 
 Onset age (years) 4.37 (1.8) 3.36 (2.0) 0.01 3.74 (1.5) 3.36 (2.0) 0.41 
 Diabetes duration at Tb 2.73 (1.9) 2.94 (1.9) 0.45 2.56 (1.9) 2.94 (1.9) 0.45 
Glycemic characteristics        
 Avg HbA1c (%) over 18 months 7.8 (0.8)  8.2 (0.9) 0.02 7.9 (0.8)  8.2 (0.9)  0.19 
 Avg HbA1c (mmol/mol) over 18 months 62 (9) 66 (10)  63 (9) 66 (10)  
 Avg AOC 70 mg/dL (%) 0.7 (0.5) 0.8 (0.6) 0.48 0.7 (0.6) 0.8 (0.7) 0.67 
 Avg AOC >300 mg/dL (%) 12.8 (7.4) 17.3(8.7) 0.01 12.6 (6.9) 17.3 (8.7) 0.02 
 MAGE (mg/dL) 157 (24) 175 (26) 0.11 161 (27) 175 (26) 0.52 
Brain volume       
 GMV_Tb (mL) 694 (54) 672 (48) 0.55* 688 (51) 672 (48) 0.52* 
 WMV_Tb (mL) 449 (41) 433 (32) 0.97* 438 (41) 433 (32) 0.73* 
 GMV_T18 (mL) 703 (54) 685 (49) 0.76* 698 (48) 685 (49) 0.70* 
 WMV_T18 (mL) 459 (42) 448 (34) 0.66* 449 (41) 448 (34) 0.49* 
Brain growth during study       
 GMV growth rate (mL/year) 5.7 (5) 8.5 (5) 0.14* 6.4 (5) 8.5 (5) 0.04* 
 WMV growth rate (mL/year) 7.2 (4) 9.5 (4) 0.04* 7.2 (4) 9.5 (4) 0.04* 
Unmatched
Matched for HbA1c and age
None/mild
Moderate/severe
None/mild
Moderate/severe
n = 98n = 30P valuesn = 30n = 30P values
Demographics       
 Sex      0.07 
  Male 55 11  18 11  
  Female 43 19  12 19  
 Age at baseline (years) 7.18 (1.7) 6.35 (1.4) 0.02 6.38 (1.5) 6.35 (1.4) 0.94 
 Onset age (years) 4.37 (1.8) 3.36 (2.0) 0.01 3.74 (1.5) 3.36 (2.0) 0.41 
 Diabetes duration at Tb 2.73 (1.9) 2.94 (1.9) 0.45 2.56 (1.9) 2.94 (1.9) 0.45 
Glycemic characteristics        
 Avg HbA1c (%) over 18 months 7.8 (0.8)  8.2 (0.9) 0.02 7.9 (0.8)  8.2 (0.9)  0.19 
 Avg HbA1c (mmol/mol) over 18 months 62 (9) 66 (10)  63 (9) 66 (10)  
 Avg AOC 70 mg/dL (%) 0.7 (0.5) 0.8 (0.6) 0.48 0.7 (0.6) 0.8 (0.7) 0.67 
 Avg AOC >300 mg/dL (%) 12.8 (7.4) 17.3(8.7) 0.01 12.6 (6.9) 17.3 (8.7) 0.02 
 MAGE (mg/dL) 157 (24) 175 (26) 0.11 161 (27) 175 (26) 0.52 
Brain volume       
 GMV_Tb (mL) 694 (54) 672 (48) 0.55* 688 (51) 672 (48) 0.52* 
 WMV_Tb (mL) 449 (41) 433 (32) 0.97* 438 (41) 433 (32) 0.73* 
 GMV_T18 (mL) 703 (54) 685 (49) 0.76* 698 (48) 685 (49) 0.70* 
 WMV_T18 (mL) 459 (42) 448 (34) 0.66* 449 (41) 448 (34) 0.49* 
Brain growth during study       
 GMV growth rate (mL/year) 5.7 (5) 8.5 (5) 0.14* 6.4 (5) 8.5 (5) 0.04* 
 WMV growth rate (mL/year) 7.2 (4) 9.5 (4) 0.04* 7.2 (4) 9.5 (4) 0.04* 

Data are presented as n or mean (SD). For the unmatched groups, the moderate/severe group was significantly younger in age, younger at onset age, and had higher glycemic exposure during the study. The matched subgroups reduced those differences. For the CGM data, Avg AOC (area over the blood concentration–time curve) 70 mg/dL is the average amount of time spent under 70 mg/dL, Avg >300 mg/dL is the average time spent over 300 mg/dL. For the brain volume data, growth rate is calculated as the difference in T18Tb divided by time interval in years.

*Covaried for age and sex.

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