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Table 1

Participant characteristics by diabetes status

Control (n = 174)T1D (n = 429)T2D (n = 85)P value control vs. T1DP value control vs. T2D
Age (years) 14.1 (11.9, 16.4) 14.7 (12.2, 17.5) 15.8 (13.5, 17.8) 0.060 <0.001 
Male sex 66 (37.9) 208 (48.5) 28 (32.9) 0.023 0.518 
Race    <0.001 <0.001 
 Non-Hispanic white 97 (55.7) 339 (79.0) 21 (24.7)   
 African American 48 (27.6) 43 (10.0) 52 (61.2)   
 Hispanic 29 (16.7) 47 (11.0) 12 (14.1)   
Parental educational level    0.019 <0.001 
 ≤12 years 87 (50.0) 168 (39.2) 67 (78.8)   
 >12 years 87 (50.0) 261 (60.8) 18 (21.2)   
Waist circumference (cm) 76.4 (69.4, 87.6) 78.0 (69.8, 86.0) 108.8 (100.0, 120.2) 0.978 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m222.2 (19.1, 26.5) 21.8 (19.1, 25.0) 34.5 (29.8, 40.1) 0.125 <0.001 
Obesity 40 (23.0) 52 (12.1) 74 (87.1) 0.001 <0.001 
Diabetes duration (years) NA 3.3 (0.9, 7.9) 1.3 (0.6, 2.0) <0.001* 
Total folate (μg/L) 19.9 (14.5, 25.2) 20.2 (15.2, 25.0) 16.0 (11.6, 22.0) 0.754 0.002 
Vitamin B12 (μg/L) 555.3 (416.7, 688.7) 599.8 (485.5, 728.0) 479.6 (401.7, 607.5) <0.001 0.019 
Arsenic exposure      
 ∑As (ng/L) 83.1 (63.8, 110.3) 81.7 (64.3, 106.7) 82.9 (62.3, 98.9) 0.665 0.521 
 iAs (ng/L) 50.2 (40.7, 63.05) 46.6 (36.4, 59.3) 42.9 (31.9, 55.6) 0.046 0.010 
 MMA (ng/L) 8.1 (4.2, 13.9) 8.9 (5.5, 15.3) 9.6 (5.2, 16.0) 0.239 0.182 
 DMA (ng/L) 21.0 (13.0, 30.1) 22.8 (15.4, 33.7) 23.4 (17.7, 30.5) 0.196 0.227 
Arsenic metabolism      
 iAs% 63.4 (51.2, 74.0) 58.7 (47.7, 68.9) 58.0 (46.3, 65.6) 0.011 0.027 
 MMA% 10.3 (6.3, 14.9) 11.2 (7.2, 16.6) 12.7 (7.4, 17.9) 0.072 0.036 
 DMA% 25.2 (18.6, 33.5) 28.9 (21.0, 36.1) 29.3 (21.4, 35.7) 0.014 0.048 
Control (n = 174)T1D (n = 429)T2D (n = 85)P value control vs. T1DP value control vs. T2D
Age (years) 14.1 (11.9, 16.4) 14.7 (12.2, 17.5) 15.8 (13.5, 17.8) 0.060 <0.001 
Male sex 66 (37.9) 208 (48.5) 28 (32.9) 0.023 0.518 
Race    <0.001 <0.001 
 Non-Hispanic white 97 (55.7) 339 (79.0) 21 (24.7)   
 African American 48 (27.6) 43 (10.0) 52 (61.2)   
 Hispanic 29 (16.7) 47 (11.0) 12 (14.1)   
Parental educational level    0.019 <0.001 
 ≤12 years 87 (50.0) 168 (39.2) 67 (78.8)   
 >12 years 87 (50.0) 261 (60.8) 18 (21.2)   
Waist circumference (cm) 76.4 (69.4, 87.6) 78.0 (69.8, 86.0) 108.8 (100.0, 120.2) 0.978 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m222.2 (19.1, 26.5) 21.8 (19.1, 25.0) 34.5 (29.8, 40.1) 0.125 <0.001 
Obesity 40 (23.0) 52 (12.1) 74 (87.1) 0.001 <0.001 
Diabetes duration (years) NA 3.3 (0.9, 7.9) 1.3 (0.6, 2.0) <0.001* 
Total folate (μg/L) 19.9 (14.5, 25.2) 20.2 (15.2, 25.0) 16.0 (11.6, 22.0) 0.754 0.002 
Vitamin B12 (μg/L) 555.3 (416.7, 688.7) 599.8 (485.5, 728.0) 479.6 (401.7, 607.5) <0.001 0.019 
Arsenic exposure      
 ∑As (ng/L) 83.1 (63.8, 110.3) 81.7 (64.3, 106.7) 82.9 (62.3, 98.9) 0.665 0.521 
 iAs (ng/L) 50.2 (40.7, 63.05) 46.6 (36.4, 59.3) 42.9 (31.9, 55.6) 0.046 0.010 
 MMA (ng/L) 8.1 (4.2, 13.9) 8.9 (5.5, 15.3) 9.6 (5.2, 16.0) 0.239 0.182 
 DMA (ng/L) 21.0 (13.0, 30.1) 22.8 (15.4, 33.7) 23.4 (17.7, 30.5) 0.196 0.227 
Arsenic metabolism      
 iAs% 63.4 (51.2, 74.0) 58.7 (47.7, 68.9) 58.0 (46.3, 65.6) 0.011 0.027 
 MMA% 10.3 (6.3, 14.9) 11.2 (7.2, 16.6) 12.7 (7.4, 17.9) 0.072 0.036 
 DMA% 25.2 (18.6, 33.5) 28.9 (21.0, 36.1) 29.3 (21.4, 35.7) 0.014 0.048 

Data are median (interquartile range) and n (%). P values were obtained by Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables. T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes.*P value for the comparison between T1D and T2D.

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