M.W. and T.L. are co-first authors.

Available assessments of patient nutrition knowledge and carbohydrate counting ability are lengthy. This article reports on a study to implement and validate a series of brief nutrition quizzes of varying difficulty for use in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Among 129 youth with type 1 diabetes, participants completed an average of 2.4 ± 1 of the six quizzes, with a median score of 4.7 of 5. Higher quiz scores were associated with lower A1C (P <0.001), higher parental education (P = 0.02), and higher income (P = 0.01). Such quizzes can help to identify knowledge gaps and provide opportunities for education, which may improve glycemic outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.19757014

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