Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune β-cell destruction leading to the need for management with life-sustaining insulin. Typically, people are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes based on clinical symptoms. Glucose and A1C levels, as well as autoantibodies, may rise well before clinical symptoms are seen.

Three stages of type 1 diabetes have been identified. Until recently, these stages were primarily used for research purposes. Stage 1 is presymptomatic, and people in this stage have normoglycemia and the presence of two or more islet autoantibodies. Stage 2 is the presence of two or more autoantibodies with dysglycemia. Individuals in this stage are still presymptomatic. Stage 3 is the onset of symptomatic disease and is usually when diagnosis occurs. Although there is no cure for type 1 diabetes, there is now a treatment to delay the progression from stage 2 to stage 3 of the disease (1,2)....

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