A1C, S5, S8, S11, S12, S20, S21–S22, S97–S99

  • advantages of, S21

  • age and, S21–S22

  • cardiovascular disease and, S102–S103

  • CGM technology effect on, S106, S112, S115–S116

  • confirming diagnosis with, S22

  • correlation with BGM, S98

  • hemoglobinopathies and, S22

  • in children, S98–S99, S235–S237, S241–S242

  • in hospitalized patients, S268

  • in older adults, S219, S220, S223

  • in people with HIV, S28

  • in screening children, S28

  • limitations, S98

  • microvascular complications and, S101–S102

  • other conditions affecting, S22

  • point-of-care assays, S5, S21, S98

  • in prediabetes, S24–S25

  • in pregnancy, S256, S257–S258

  • race/ethnicity and, S22, S98–S99

  • recommendations, S21

  • setting and modifying goals for, S103–S104

acarbose, S136, S152

access to care, S13

access, to insulin, S279

ACCORD study, S57, S170, S218

ACE inhibitors, S53, S54, S163, S164–S165, S192, S194, S196, S238, S239, S244, S255, S261

acute kidney injury, S134, S161, S162, S165, S177, S194, S272

ADA consensus reports, S4, S70, S78, S106, S217

ADA evidence-grading system, S3

ADA Professional Practice Committee, S1, S4

ADA scientific reviews, S4

ADA statements, S4

ADAG study, S98, S104, S105

Addison disease, S23, S56, S237

adolescents. see children and adolescents.

adrenal insufficiency, primary, S56, S237

adult-onset diabetes. see Type 2 diabetes.

adults, prediabetes and diabetes screening in, S25, S27–S28

ADVANCE trial, S103, S105, S160

advocacy statements, S7, S279–S280

  • care of young children with diabetes in the childcare setting, S280

  • diabetes and driving, S280

  • diabetes and employment, S280

  • diabetes care in the school setting, S279–S280

  • insulin access and affordability, S279

affordability, of insulin, S279

Affordable Care Act, S13

African Americans, S22, S23, S24, S25, S27, S77, S105, S193

  • A1C variability in, S98–S99

  • ADA risk test for, S26

  • BMI cut point in, S28


  • aspirin use and, S171

  • effect on A1C, S21–S22

  • to start screening for diabetes, S24, S27

  • risk factor for diabetes, S27

  • statin treatment and, S167

agricultural workers, migrant, S13

AIM-HIGH trial, S170

albiglutide, S181, S182

albuminuria, S7, S75, S79, S105, S148, S159, S161, S164, S165, S171, S176, S182, S183, S191, S192, S193, S194, S195, S196, S197, S198, S199, S237, S239, S240

alcohol intake, S54, S57, S72, S76, S106, S117, S136, S163, S169, S207, S246, S255

algorithms, insulin dosing, using machine learning, S9, S268

alirocumab, S168

alogliptin, S148, S152, S173, S183, S270

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, S44, S131, S152

alpha-lipoic acid, S208

ambulatory glucose profile (AGP), S100

amputation, foot, S177, S206, S209, S210, S211, S212

analogs. see insulin analogs.

angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), S7, S53, S54, S147, S163, S164–S165, S191–S192, S194, S231, S238

anti-VEGF agents, S205–S206

antiplatelet agents, S170–S172

antipsychotics, atypical, S26, S28, S84

antiretroviral therapies, S24, S28

anxiety disorders, S82, S136

ARRIVE trial, S171

ASCEND trial, S75, S171, S172

Asian Americans, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S43, S129, S130, S132, S135

aspart, S29, S141, S153, S222

aspirin therapy, S170, S171–S172, S205, S219

ASPREE trial, S171

atenolol, S208, S261

atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), S158–S190

atorvastatin, S167

atypical antipsychotics, S26, S28, S84

autoimmune diseases, S23, S57, S237

automated insulin delivery (AID) systems, S6–S7, S111, S112, S115, S118–S119, S141

autonomic neuropathy, diabetic, S8, S78, S160, S206, S207, S273

balloons, implanted gastric, S132

bariatric surgery. see metabolic surgery.

basal insulin, S9, S113–S114, S116, S119, S140, S141, S150, S151, S152, S153, S154–S145, S222, S224, S226, S233, S269, S270, S271, S272, S273

bedtime dosing

  • of antihypertensives, S165

  • of insulin, S144–S145, S150, S220, S222, S235

behavior changes, S6, S12, S68–S96

  • diabetes self-management education and support, S68–S70

  • for diabetes prevention, S42–S43

  • medical nutrition therapy, S68–S76

  • physical activity, S76–S78

  • in gestational diabetes, S258

  • psychosocial care, S79–S86

  • smoking cessation, S79

  • for weight loss, S130–S131

bempedoic acid, S169

beta-carotene, S6, S72, S76

beta-cell replacement therapy, S142, S146

biguanides, S152

bladder dysfunction, S207, S256

Blood Glucose Awareness Training, S82, S106

blood glucose monitoring (BGM), S50, S75, S79, S97, S104, S111–S114, S144–S145, S243

  • in hospitalized patients, S269

  • continuous glucose monitoring, S99–S101

  • correlation with A1C, S98

  • devices for, S111–S127

  • during pregnancy, S257

  • in hypoglycemia, S104, S106

  • in intensive insulin regimens, S113

  • in people on basal insulin, oral agents, or noninsulin injectables, S113–S114

  • in schools, S112

  • initiation of, S112

  • meter standards, S113

  • optimizing, S113–S114

blood pressure control. see also hypertension, S8, S159–S165, S191, S195, S208, S224, S225

body mass index (BMI), S9, S24–S25, S43, S44, S45, S53, S76

  • COVID-19 mortality and, S60

  • effects of metformin use in pregnancy on, S259

  • ethnicity and, S27–S28

  • for medical weight loss medications, S132

  • for metabolic surgery, S132, S135, S243, S244

  • in obese patients, S129–S130

  • in screening children, S240–S241

  • postpartum, S262

bone fracture risk, S44, S45, S60, S148

bone-strengthening activities, S76, S77, S233, S241, S242

bromocriptine, S152

calcium channel blockers, S164, S165, S196

canagliflozin, S151, S152, S177, S178, S179, S181, S182, S183, S197

cancer, risk in diabetics, S56–S57

CANVAS study, S177, S178, S179, S182, S197, S199

capsaicin, topical, S208

carbamazepine, S208

carbohydrate intake, S14, S21, S24, S42, S72, S73–S75, S78, S104, S136, S140, S142, S144–S145, S225, S233–S234, S257, S258, S259, S271, S272

cardiac autonomic neuropathy, diabetic, S206, S207

cardiac function testing, S245–S246

cardiovascular disease, S2, S7, S158–S190

  • A1C and outcomes of, S102–S103

  • antiplatelet agents, S170–S172

  • cardiac testing, S176

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S159–S165

  • lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, S176–S184

  • lipid management, S165–S166

  • prevention of, S44–S45, S224

  • screening, S172, S176

  • statin treatment, S165–S170

  • treatment, S172–S176

cardiovascular risk, S13, S15, S25, S27, S31, S44, S45, S76, S78, S101, S102, S129, S135, S143, S158, S159, S160, S162, S166, S167, S169, S172, S176, S180, S184, S193, S194, S195, S197, S207, S218–S219, S238

  • risk calculator, S159

care delivery systems, S11–S13

  • access to care and quality improvement, S13

  • behaviors and well-being, S12

  • care teams, S12

  • chronic care model, S11

  • medication cost considerations, S12

  • six core elements, S11

  • system-level improvement strategies, S11–S12

  • telehealth, S12

care teams, S12

CARMELINA trial, S173, S182

CAROLINA trial, S173, S177

celiac disease, S23, S56, S231, S237–S238

CHAP trial, S7, S9, S164, S261

Charcot neuropathy, S78, S209, S211

childcare, S233, S279, S280

children and adolescents, S7, S8, S230–S253, S279–S280

  • A1C in, S98–S99, S235–S237, S241–S242

  • asymptomatic, risk-based screening in, S25

  • cystic fibrosis-related diabetes in, S28–S29

  • diabetes care in childcare settings, S233, S279, S280

  • diabetes care in school setting, S112, S234, S279–S280

  • insulin pumps in, S119

  • maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S19, S28–S29, S30

  • monogenic diabetes syndromes, S19, S30–S32

  • neonatal diabetes, S19, S30, S31

  • physical activity in, S76, S77

  • screening for type 1 risk, S24–S25

  • screening for prediabetes and type 2, S25, S28

  • transition from pediatric to adult care, S246

  • type 1 diabetes in, S233–S240

  • type 2 diabetes in, S240–S246

China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Outcome Study, S45

CHIPS trial, S163, S261

cholesterol lowering therapy, S7, S53, S166, S167, S168–S169

chronic care model, S11

chronic kidney disease, diabetic, S8, S191–S202

  • acute kidney injury, S194

  • assessing albuminuria and GFR, S193

  • diagnosis, S193–S194

  • epidemiology, S193

  • interventions for, S195–S199

  • referral to nephrologist, S199

  • risk of progression, S191, S193

  • screening recommendations, S191

  • staging, S194

  • surveillance, S194-195

  • treatment recommendations, S191–S183

classification, S5, S19–S20

clonidine, S208, S261

clopidogrel, S170

closed-loop systems, S105, S119, S144

  • do-it-yourself, S120

  • hybrid, S141, S218, S234, S260

coaching, online, S69, S120

cognitive capacity/impairment, S80, S84–S86

colesevelam, S152

collaborative care, S49–S51

collagen vascular diseases, S56

combination therapy, S7, S143, S144, S146, S147, S149, S150–S151, S154, S161, S168, S168–S169, S169–S170, S208, S222

community health workers, S5, S13, S15, S43, S70, S79

community screening, S28

community support, S15

comorbidities, S10, S11, S56–S60

  • assessment of, S6, S49–S67

  • autoimmune diseases, S23, S57, S237

  • cancer, S56–S57

  • cognitive impairment/dementia, S57

  • COVID-19, S60–S62

  • fractures, S148, S161, S177, S222, S223

  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S57–S60

  • obstructive sleep apnea, S60

  • periodontal disease, S60

  • prevention or delay of, S5, S41–S48

COMPASS trial, S172, S283

computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE), S9, S267, S268

CONCEPTT study, S257, S258

connected insulin pens, S112, S117–S118, S236

continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S6, S7, S8, S9, S50, S114–S117

  • ambulatory glucose profile in, S99, S100, S101

  • assessment of glycemic control, S97, S98, S99–S101

  • devices for, S114–S117

  • in hospitalized patients, S269, S271, S272

  • in hypoglycemia prevention, S106

  • in older adults, S218

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S99, S112, S234, S236

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S243

  • in pregnancy, S116, S258

  • interfering substances, S117

  • intermittently scanned devices, S106, S114–S115, S116, S235, S236, S241, S258

  • side effects, S116–S117

  • standardized metrics for, S99

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), S140–S141

coronary artery disease, S78, S164, S165, S172, S176

cost considerations, S11, S12, S13

  • glycemic control, S9, S148, S221, S222

  • insulin therapy, S117, S119, S141, S150, S151, S153, S260, S279

  • metabolic surgery, S135

  • weight loss medications, S132–S134, S151

Counterfeit test strips, S113

COVID-19, S7, S60–S62, S129, S269

COVID-19 vaccines, S6, S51, S56

CREDENCE study, S177, S178, S179, S182, S197, S198

cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, S19, S28–S29

DAPA-CKD study, S177, S178, S179, S197, S198

DAPA-HF study, S178, S179, S180, S182

dapagliflozin, S62, S151, S152, S177, S178, S180, S181, S182, S183, S197

DARE-19 study, S62

DASH diet, S42, S163, S166

DECLARE-TIMI 58 study, S177, S178, S179, S182, S197, S198

degludec, S141, S151, S152, S153, S154, S222

delay, of type 2 diabetes, S5–S6, S41–S48

  • lifestyle behavior change, S42–S43

  • person-centered care goals, S45–S46

  • pharmacologic interventions, S43–S44

  • recommendations, S41, S42, S43–S44

  • of vascular disease and mortality, S44–S45

DELIVER study, S178, S179, S180, S182

dementia, in diabetics, S57, S84, S105, S170, S217–S218

dental practices, screening in, S28

depression, S14, S53, S80, S81, S82–S83, S119, S133, S136, S208, S216, S217, S220, S223, S235, S246

detemir, S144, S151, S153, S222

devices. see technology.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), S21, S101, S102, S103, S104, S119, S140, S141, S236, S240

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC), S8, S102, S103, S105, S218

diabetes distress, S6, S14, S80, S81–S82, S83, S115, S235, S246, S274

diabetes medical management plan (DMMP), for students, S112

Diabetes Prevention Impact Tool Kit, S43

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), S25, S27, S42, S43, S44, S75, S120, S149

  • delivery and dissemination of, S43

Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program (DPRP), S43

diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES), S6, S7, S12, S15, S50, S68–S70, S71, S82, S150

diabetes technology. see technology, diabetes.

diabetic ketoacidosis, S20, S60, S61, S77, S81, S106, S116, S141, S142, S148, S177, S224, S233, S243, S256, S260, S273

diabetic kidney disease. see also chronic kidney disease.

  • dietary protein and, S75

  • diagnosis, S193–S194

  • exercise and, S79

  • finerenone in, S183–S184, S198–S199

  • glucose-lowering medications for, S196–S198

  • multiple drug therapy, S165

Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS), S206

diagnosis, S5, S6, S19–S35

  • confirmation of, S23

  • criteria for, S21

  • cystic fibrosis-related, S28–S29

  • diabetic kidney disease, S193–S194

  • diabetic neuropathy, S206–S207

  • diagnostic tests, S20–S22

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S33–S35

  • monogenic diabetes syndromes, S30–S33

  • pancreatic, S33

  • posttransplantation, S30–S31

  • prediabetes, S25

  • type 1 diabetes, S22–S25

  • type 1 vs type 2 in pediatric patients, S242

  • type 2 diabetes, S25–S28

diagnostic tests, S20–S22

  • A1C, S21–S22

  • age, S21–S22

  • confirmation of, S22

  • criteria for, S21

  • ethnicity, S22

  • fasting and 2-hr plasma glucose, S21

  • hemoglobinopathies, S22

  • race, S22

diet, see Medical nutrition therapy.

Dietary Reference Intakes, S259

DIAMOND trial, S8, S218

digital health technology, S120

dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, S30, S131, S147, S148, S149, S152, S173, S177, S222, S270

disordered eating behavior, S53, S71, S80, S81, S83–S84, S233, S234–S235, S246

do-it-yourself systems, S120

domperidone, S209

Dose Adjusted for Normal Eating (DAFNE), S106

DRCR Retina Network, S205

driving, and diabetes, S280

droxidopa, S208

dual GLP-1/glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist, S7, S44, S60, S131, S146, S152

DUAL-VIII trial, S154

dulaglutide, S146, S148, S151, S152, S174, S181, S182

duloxetine, S208

dyslipidemia, S12, S25, S27, S44, S45, S53, S77, S132, S158, S159, S169, S171, S203, S206, S207, S220, S231, S232, S238, S239, S243, S245

e-cigarettes, S239, S246, S79

eating disorders, S71, S83–S84, S235

eating patterns, S6, S42, S50, S59, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S81

  • disrupted, S83, S84

education, see also diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES).

  • on device use, S112

  • patient, S210–S211

  • preconception, S255, S256

  • staff, in rehabilitation and LTC settings, S224–S225

electrical stimulation, gastric, S209, S212

ELIXA trial, S174, S175, S181

EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, S177, S178, S179, S182, S197

empagliflozin, S151, S152, S177, S178, S179, S180, S181, S182, S183, S189

EMPEROR-Preserved trial, S180, S182

EMPEROR-Reduced trial, S180, S182

employment, diabetes and, S280

enalapril, S208

end-of-life care, S219, S223, S225–S226

enteral/parenteral feedings, S270, S271, S272

erectile dysfunction, S207, S209

ertugliflozin, S152, S178, S180, S181, S270

erythromycin, S209

erythropoietin therapy, A1C and, S21, S22, S219

estimated average glucose (eAG), S98

ETDRS study, S205

Ethnicity, S24, S25, S27–S28, S61, S118, S131

  • effect on A1C, S22

evidence-grading system, S3

evolocumab, S168

EXAMINE trial, S173, S182

exenatide, S148, S148, S152, S174, S181, S182, S243

exercise. see physical activity.

exocrine pancreas diseases, S19, S32

EXSCEL trial, S174, S175, S181

eye exam, comprehensive, S204, S240

ezetimibe, S7, S166, S167, S168, S178

  • statins and, S168, S170

family history, S23, S25, S27, S29, S30, S32, S57, S83, S159, S171, S240, S242

fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, S20, S21, S22, S25, S28, S150

fats, dietary, S9, S72, S75, S136, S238, S245, S257, S259

FDA standards, for glucose meters, S113

fenofibrate, S169, S170, S206

fibrate, S232, S245

plus statin therapy, S169, S170

fibrosis-4 index risk calculator, S6, S58

FIDELIO-DKD trial, S183, S198

FIGARO-DKD trial, S183, S198, S199

finerenone, S7, S176, S183, S198–S199

FLOW trial, S197

fluvastatin, S167

food insecurity, S13–S14

foot care, S8, S206, S209–S212, S240

footwear, S78, S209, S211

FOURIER trial, S168

fractures, S148, S161, S177, S222, S223

gastrectomy, vertical sleeve, S135–S136

gastric aspiration therapy, S132

gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y gastric, S135–S136

gastric electrical stimulation, S209

gastrointestinal neuropathies, S207

gastroparesis, S207, S208–S209

gemfibrozil, S170

genetic testing, S30–S31, S58

genitourinary disturbances, S207

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), S9, S19, S24, S25, S27, S32–S35, S43, S44, S254, S258–S260,S261–S262

  • definition, S32–S33

  • diagnosis, S33–S35

  • initial testing, S261–S262

  • insulin, S260

  • management of, S258–S260

  • medical nutrition therapy, S259

  • metformin, S259

  • one-step strategy, S33–S34

  • pharmacologic therapy, S259

  • physical activity, S259

  • postpartum care, S261–S263

  • recommendations, S32

  • screening and diagnosis, S33–S35

  • sulfonylureas, S259

  • two-step strategy, S34–S35

glargine, S141, S144, S151, S152, S153, S154, S222

glimepiride, S148, S152, S173, S177

glipizide, S148, S152, S222

glomerular filtration rate, S8, S30, S53, S75, S146, S147, S148, S165, S173, S175, S176, S179, S191–S192, S193, S222, S240, S244

glucagon, S32, S104, S105–S106, S150

glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), S44, S102, S131, S134, S136, S142, S143, S147, S148, S150, S152, S172, S173, S175, S180, S181, S192, S196, S203, S242, S243, S270

glucocorticoid therapy, S19, S272–S273

glucose, for hypoglycemia, S104, S105

glucose meters, S112–S114

  • counterfeit strips, S113

  • inaccuracy, S114

  • interfering substances, S114

  • optimizing use of, S113–S114

  • oxygen, S114

  • standards, S13

  • temperature, S114

glucose monitoring. see blood glucose monitoring.

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, A1C and, S21, S22, S99

glucose-lowering therapy, S7

  • cardiovascular outcomes, S176

  • choice of, S146

  • for obesity and weight management, S131

  • heart failure and, S181–S182

  • in chronic kidney disease, S196–S198

  • in hospitalized patients, S268–S269

  • noninsulin, S152

glulisine, S153, S222

glyburide, S148, S152, S222, S258, S259

glycemic control

  • assessment of, S98–S101

  • physical activity and, S78

glycemic goals. see also glycemic targets, S101–S104

glycemic targets, S6, S97–S110

  • A1c and BGM correlation, S98

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease outcomes, S102–S103

  • A1c differences in ethnic groups and children, S98–S99

  • A1c limitations, S98

  • continuous glucose monitoring, S100–S101

  • in diabetic kidney disease, S195

  • goals, S101–S104

  • in hospitalized patients, S268–S269

  • hypoglycemia, S104–S106

  • individualization of, S102, S103

  • intercurrent illness, S106

  • in older adults, S219–S221

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S235–S237

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S241–S242

  • recommendations, S101

  • setting and modifying A1C goals, S103–S104

glycemic treatment, S7, S140–S157

guanfacine, S208

health literacy, S14–S15

health numeracy, S12, S14–S15, S49, S50, S71, S75

hearing impairment, S55

heart failure, S7, S30, S50, S51, S54, S60, S77, S103, S129, S142, S146, S158–S159, S161, S175, S177, S180–S183

hemodialysis, A1C and, S21, S219

hemoglobinopathies, A1C on, S22, S28, S33, S41

hepatitis B, S54–S55, S56

hepatitis B vaccines, S54–S55, S195, S256

hepatitis C infection, S256

hepatitis, autoimmune, S23, S56, S237

homelessness, S13, S14, S234, S246

hospital care, S9, S267–S278

  • care delivery standards, S267–S268

  • continuous glucose monitoring, S269

  • diabetes care specialists in, S268

  • diabetic ketoacidosis, S273

  • enteral/parenteral feedings, S272

  • glucocorticoid therapy, S272–S273

  • glucose-lowering treatment in, S269–S270

  • glycemic targets in, S268–S269

  • hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S273

  • hypoglycemia, S270–S271

  • insulin therapy, S269–S270

  • medical nutrition therapy in, S271–S272

  • medication reconciliation, S274

  • noninsulin therapies, S270

  • perioperative care, S273

  • preventing admissions and readmissions, S274

  • self-management in, S272

  • standards for special situations, S272–S273

  • structured discharge communication, S274

  • transition to ambulatory setting, S273–S274

HOT trial, S161

housing insecurity, S13, S14

HPS2-THRIVE trial, S170

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), S19, S21, S22, S24, S28, S207, S256

human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, S55

human regular insulin, S151, S152, S153, S272, S273

hybrid closed-loop systems, S119

hydrogel, oral, S132

hyperbaric oxygen therapy, S8, S211, S212

hyperglycemia, S5, S7, S9, S14, S20, S21, S22, S23, S27, S28, S29–S30, S32, S33, S34, S45, S46, S57, S59, S61, S74, S76, S83, S99, S101, S104, S106, S112, S113, S116, S132, S135, S141, S143, S149, S150, S151, S182, S193, S204, S218, S219, S220, S225, S226, S233, S234, S236, S242, S245, S254, S256, S257, S258, S267, S268, S269, S270, S271, S272, S273, S274

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study, S33, S34, S257

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S106, S219, S242, S273

hypertension, S7, S9, S12, S24, S25, S27, S44, S54, S75, S78, S133, S159–S165, S171, S176, S191, S193, S196, S199, S204, S208, S216, S220, S225, S231, S232, S238, S240, S244, S245, S254, S256, S258, S259, S260, S261

hypertriglyceridemia, S75, S140, S149, S169

hypoglycemia, S6, S7, S8, S14, S31, S51, S54, S72, S76, S104–S106

  • CGM technology in prevention of, S106

  • classification, S104, S105

  • in hospitalized patients, S270–S271

  • in older adults, S57,S217–S218

  • postbariatric, S132, S136

prevention, S75, S78, S106

  • risk, S54

  • treatment, S105–S106

hypogonadism, S209

hypokalemia, S165, S192, S194

icosapent ethyl, S75, S169

idiopathic type 1 diabetes, S23

Illness, intercurrent, glycemic targets in, S106, S114

immune checkpoint inhibitors, S24

immune-mediated diabetes, S23

impaired fasting glucose (IFG), S20, S21, S24, S25

impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), S20, S21, S24, S25, S29, S34

inclisiran, S7, S168–S169

incretin-based therapies, S84, S181, S222–S224

Indian Diabetes Prevention Program (IDPP-1), S44

infections, S51, S62, S128, S144, S148, S207, S223, S273

  • diabetic foot, S203–S204

influenza vaccines, S53–S54, S55

inhaled insulin, S117, S141, S143, S148, S153–S154

injection techniques, S118, S142

insulin analogs, in type 1 diabetics, S119, S140, S141, S144, S148, S149, S151, S152, S154, S224, S236, S270, S273

insulin delivery, S112, S117

  • automated systems, S118, S119

  • do-it-yourself closed-loop systems, S120

  • injection techniques, S118, S142

  • intravenous, transitioning to subcutaneous, S270

  • pens and syringes, S117–S118

  • pumps, S118–S119

insulin pump therapy, S118–S119

insulin resistance, S5, S19, S20, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S44, S45, S58, S59, S77, S86, S153, S245, S256, S257, S258, S259, S260, S261

insulin secretagogues, S54, S72, S78, S105, S131, S222

insulin therapy

  • access and affordability, S279

  • dosing algorithms using machine learning, S9, S268

  • in adults with type 1 diabetes, S140–S142

  • in adults with type 2 diabetes, S142–S154

  • basal, S9, S113–S114, S116, S119, S140, S141, S150, S151, S152, S153, S154–S145, S222, S224, S226, S233, S269, S270, S271, S272, S273

  • combination injectable, S154

  • concentrated insulins, S152–S153

  • in hospitalized patients, S269–S270

  • inhaled insulin, S117, S141, S143, S148, S153–S154

  • monitoring for intensive regimens, S113

  • in older adults, S221–S224

  • prandial, S7, S113, S141–S142, S143, S150, S151–S152, S154, S222, S233, S234, S243, S270, S271

insulin:carbohydrate ratio (ICR), S144, S145

integrated CGM devices, S6, S115

intensification, of therapy, S141, S143, S149, S151, S154, S176

intermittent fasting, S6, S73

intermittently scanned CGM devices, S106, S114–S115, S116, S235, S236, S241, S258

International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), S33–S36

International Diabetes Closed Loop (iDCL) trial, S141

islet transplantation, S32, S105, S142

isradipine, S208

juvenile-onset diabetes. see immune-mediated diabetes.

KDIGO study, S194

ketoacidosis, diabetic, S20, S60, S61, S77, S81, S106, S116, S141, S142, S148, S177, S224, S233, S243, S256, S260, S273

kidney disease. see chronic kidney disease

Kumamoto study, S101

language barriers, S13

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), S20

Latino population, S13

LEADER trial, S174–S175, S180, S197

lifestyle behavior changes

  • delivery and dissemination of, S43

  • for diabetes prevention, S42–S43

  • for hypertension, S163

  • for lipid management, S165–S166

  • for weight management, S59, S71, S121

  • in older adults, S220–S221

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S233–S234

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S7, S242

  • in pregnancy, S9, S163

  • to reduce ASCVD risk factors, S176

  • with NAFLD, S6

linagliptin, S148, S152, S173, S177, S182

lipase inhibitors, S133

lipid management, S165–S166, S225

lipid profiles, S53, S166, S231, S232, S238, S239

liraglutide, S44, S60, S132, S134, S142, S148, S151, S152, S153, S154, S174, S180, S182, S197, S243, S244

lispro, S141, S153, S222

lixisenatide, S148, S152, S153, S154, S174, S181, S182

long-acting insulin, S141, S143, S145, S149, S150, S151, S153, S224, S234, S236, S242, S243, S254, S255, S262, S272, S273

Look AHEAD trial, S60, S61, S130–S131, S176, S221

loss of protective sensation, S8, S206, S209, S210

lovastatin, S167

machine learning, dosing algorithms using, S9, S268

macular edema, diabetic, S204–S206

maternal history, in screening children/ adolescents, S25

maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S19, S20, S30–S31, S230, S241

meal planning, S6, S73–S75, S256

Medicaid expansion, S13

medical devices, for weight loss, S132

medical evaluation, S5, S51–S62

  • autoimmune diseases, S56

  • cancer, S57–S58

  • cognitive impairment/dementia, S57

  • immunizations, S51, S53–S55

  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S57–S60

  • obstructive sleep apnea, S60

  • periodontal disease, S60

  • recommendations, S48

medical nutrition therapy, S69, S70–S76

  • alcohol, S76

  • carbohydrates, S73–S75

  • eating patterns and meal planning, S73

  • fats, S75

  • goals of, S71

  • in hospitalized patients, S271–S272

  • micronutrients and supplements, S75–S76

  • nonnutritive sweeteners, S76

  • protein, S75

  • sodium, S75

  • weight management, S71

Mediterranean diet, S42, S57, S59, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S166

meglitinides, S54, S152

mental health referrals, S8, S54, S71, S79, S89, S81, S82, S83, S132, S234–S235, S246

mental illness, serious, S81, S84

metabolic surgery, S71, S81, S128, S129, S130, S132–S136,S243–S244

metformin, S30, S31, S32, S43–S44, S53, S62, S75, S102, S103, S131, S142, S143, S146, S148, S149, S151, S152, S154, S173, S174, S176, S178, S182, S184, S196, S217, S221, S222, S232, S242, S243, S245, S258, S259, S260, S261, S262, S273

metoclopramide, S209

metoprolol, S208

micronutrients, S71, S72, S75–S76

microvascular complications, S11, S27, S31, S32, S45, S78, S99, S101–S102, S104, S141, S142, S159, S206, S219, S239–S240, S255

midodrine, S208

miglitol, S152

migrant farmworkers, S13

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy, S8, S164, S165, S183, S192, S193, S194, S196, S198–S199

monogenic diabetes syndromes, S19, S30–S32

multiple daily injections (MDI), S53, S113, S115, S116, S118, S119, S143, S144, S145, S243

myasthenia gravis, S23, S56, S237

naltrexone/bupropion ER, S132, S133

nateglinide, S44, S152

National Diabetes Data Group, S35

National Diabetes Prevention Program, S43

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), S11, S21, S34, S241

neonatal diabetes, S19, S30

nephrologist, referral to, S8, S192, S193, S194, S199

nephropathy, diabetic, S27, S165, S173, S175, S179, S197, S203, S209, S231, S232, S239, S244, S256

neurocognitive function, S217

neuropathic pain, S8, S208

neuropathy, diabetic, S8, S44, S54, S101, S149, S206–S209, S211, S231, S232, S240,S244, S256

  • autonomic, S8, S78, S160, S207, S273

  • cardiac autonomic, S206, S207

  • gastrointestinal, S207

  • genitourinary disturbances due to, S207

  • peripheral, S56, S78, S119, S206–S207, S210

new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), S29

niacin + statin therapy, S169, S170

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), S6, S53, S57–S60, S256

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), S6, S57–S60, S148

noninsulin treatments, S30, S106, S112, S113–S114, S116, S142, S149, S152, S221, S222, S223, S258, S270

noninsulin-dependent diabetes. see type 2 diabetes.

nonnutritive sweeteners, S72, S76

NPH insulin, S141, S145, S148, S149, S150, S151, S152, S153, S155, S222, S224, S270, S272, S273

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, S22

nursing homes, S224–S225


  • for diabetes prevention/delay, S42–S43

nutrition therapy. see medical nutrition therapy.

obesity, S7, S128–S139

  • assessment, S129

  • medical devices for weight loss, S132

  • metabolic surgery, S132, S135–S136

  • nutrition, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, S129–S131

  • pharmacotherapy, S131–S132, 133-134

  • screening asymptomatic children/adolescents, S24, S25

obstructive sleep apnea, S53, S58, S86, S232, S245


older adults, S7, S216–S229

  • end-of-life care, S225–S226

  • hypoglycemia, S217–S218

  • lifestyle management, S220–S221

  • neurocognitive function, S217

  • pharmacologic therapy, S221–S224

  • in skilled nursing facilities and nursing homes, S224–S225

  • treatment goals, S218–S220

  • with type 1 diabetes, S224

one-step strategy, for GDM, S33–S34

opioid antagonist/antidepressant combination, S133

ophthalmologist, referral to, S78, S204, S205

oral agents, S113, S114, S149, S151, S225, S259

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), S20, S21, S25, S28, S29, S30, S31, S33, S34, S35, S258, S262

organ transplantation, posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S19, S29–S30

orlistat, S132, S133

orthostatic hypotension, S208

overweight people, screening asymptomatic, S24

adults, S24

children/adolescents, S24, S25

oxygen, glucose monitors and, S114

oxygen therapy

  • hyperbaric, S8, S211, S212

  • topical, S8, S209, S211, S212

P2Y12 receptor antagonists, S170, S172

palliative care, S219, S224, S225

pancreas transplantation, S142, S146

pancreatectomy, S32, S119

pancreatic diabetes, S19, S32

pancreatitis, S20, S32, S134, S148, S169, S181, S245

pancreoprivic diabetes, S32

pens, insulin, S112, S117–S118

periodontal disease, S28, S54, S60

perioperative care, S135, S273

peripheral arterial disease, S210

peripheral neuropathy, S56, S78, S119, S206–S207, S210

pernicious anemia, S23, S56, S129

person-centered care, S69, S101, S142, S143

  • collaborative care, S10, S49–S51, S79

  • goals, S45–S46

pharmacologic approaches. see also specific medications, medication classes.

  • for adults with type 1 diabetes, S140–S142

  • for adults with type 2 diabetes, S142–S154

  • for cardiovascular and renal disease, S54, S176–S185, S196–S197

  • for hypertension, S163–S165

  • for lipid management, S166–S170

  • for neuropathic pain, S8, S208

  • for obesity, S131–S132

  • for pediatric type 2 diabetes, S242–S243

  • for smoking cessation, S79

  • in older adults, S221–S224

  • in pregnancy, S259–S260

  • in prediabetes, S43–S44

  • interfering substances for glucose meter readings, S114

  • to glycemic treatment, S7, S54, S140–S157

phentermine, S44, S132, S133

phentermine/topiramate ER, S132, S133, S244

phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, S209

photocoagulation surgery, S205, S206

physical activity, S10, S12, S15, S27, S28, S42, S43, S50, S76–S78,S130–S131, S150, S176, S208, S221, S241, S242

  • for depression, S83

  • for diabetes prevention, S43

  • glycemic control and, S78, S106

  • impact on blood glucose, S112, S113, S114, S119

  • in children with type 1 diabetes, S233–S234

  • in pregnancy, S259

  • with microvascular complications, S78

  • pre-exercise evaluation, S78

pioglitazone, S5, S6, S44, S45, S59–S60, S148, S152

PIONEER-6 trial, S174–S175, S180

pitavastatin, S167

Plenity, S132

pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines, S6, S54

point-of-care assays

  • A1c, S5, S21, S98

  • blood glucose monitoring, S269

polycystic ovarian syndrome, S24, S25, S27, S232, S245, S256, S258, S259

population health, S5, S10–S18

  • care delivery systems, S11

  • care teams, S12

  • chronic care model, S11

  • recommendations, S10

  • social context, S13–S15

postbariatric hypoglycemia, S132, S136

postpancreatitis diabetes mellitus (PPDM), S32

postpartum care, in diabetic women, S261–S262

postpartum state, A1C in, S22

posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S19, S29–S30

pramlintide, S142, S152, S209

prandial insulin, S7, S113, S141–S142, S143, S150, S151–S152, S154, S222, S233, S234, S243, S270, S271

pravastatin, S167

prediabetes, S24–S25

  • criteria defining, S25

  • diagnosis, S25

  • prevention of vascular disease and mortality, S44–S45

  • screening, S5, S24–S25

preeclampsia, in women with diabetes, S33, S34, S163, S254, S255, S257, S258, S259

  • aspirin and, S260–S261

pregabalin, S132, S208

pregnancy, S8, S9, S19, S254–S266

  • A1C and, S21, S22, S257–S258

  • continuous glucose monitoring in, S258

  • diabetes in, S254–S255

  • drug considerations in, S261

  • eye exams during, S255

  • gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), S9, S19, S24, S25, S27, S32–S35, S43, S44, S254, S258–S260,S261–S262

  • glucose monitoring in, S257

  • glycemic targets in, S256–S258

  • insulin physiology in, S257

  • metformin in, S259

  • pharmacologic therapy, S259

  • physical activity in, S259

  • postpartum care, S261–S262

  • pre-existing type 1 and 2 diabetes in, S255, S256, S257, S260

  • preconception care, S255, S256

  • preconception counseling, S254–S255

  • preeclampsia and aspirin, S260–S261

  • real-time CGM device use in, S116

  • retinopathy during, S204–S205

  • sulfonylureas, S259

prevention, type 2 diabetes, S5, S8, S41–S48

  • lifestyle behavior change, S42–S43

  • person-centered care goals, S45–S46

  • pharmacologic interventions, S43–S44

  • recommendations, S41, S42, S43–S44

  • of vascular disease and mortality, S44–S45

proliferative diabetic retinopathy, S78, S204, S205

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, S7, S166, S167, S168, S170

protease inhibitors, A1C and, S22

protein intake, S75, S193, S195, S220, S244

psychosocial care, S6, S51, S79–S86

  • anxiety disorders, S82

  • cognitive capacity/impairment, S84–S86

  • depression, S82–S83

  • diabetes distress, S81–S82

  • disordered eating behavior, S83–S84

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S234–S235

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S246

  • in pregnancy, S261

  • referral to mental health specialist, S80–S81

  • serious mental illness, S86

  • sleep health, S86

pumps, insulin, S112, S117, S118–S120

  • do-it-yourself closed-loop system, S120

  • in type 2 and other types of diabetes, S119

  • in youth, S119

  • sensor augmented, S119

quality improvement, S5, S13, S267, S270

RAAS inhibitors, S195, S196

Race, S24, S25, S70, S105, S118, S131, S159, S173, S174, S178, S193

  • effect on A1C, S21, S22

rapid-acting insulin analog, S105, S118, S119, S140, S141, S143, S145, S150, S152, S153, S222, S225, S258, S271, S272, S273

real-time CGM devices, S7, S106, S114–S115, S116, S136, S235, S236, S241, S256, S258, S269

REDUCE-IT trial, S75, S169

referrals, S58, S70, S260

  • for cognitive testing, S84, S219

  • for community screening, S28

  • for comprehensive eye exam, S204, S240, S245, S255

  • for local community resources, S13

  • for DSME, S54, S70, S217

  • for tobacco cessation, S44

  • from dentist to primary care, S28

  • to behavioral health provider, S217

  • to foot care specialist, S8, S211

  • to gastroenterologist, S245

  • to mental health professional, S8, S80–S81

  • to nephrologist, S8, S192, S194, S199, S244

  • to neurologist, S206, S231

  • to sleep specialist, S87, S245

  • to registered dietitian nutritionist, S43, S255, S257, S274

registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), S43, S255, S257, S274

reimbursement, for DSMES, S69, S70

repaglinide, S29, S152

retinopathy, diabetic, S8, S27, S54, S58, S77, S78, S101, S119, S161, S193, S194, S198, S203–S206, S209, S231, S232, S237, S240, S244–S245, S255, S256, S260

REWIND trial, S175, S181

risk calculator, for ASCVD, S6, S159

risk management

  • cardiovascular disease, S7, S158–S190

  • chronic kidney disease, S8, S191–S202

risk, screening for, S23–S28

rivaroxaban, S170, S172

rosiglitazone, S148

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, S135

SAVOR-TIMI trial, S173, S182

saxagliptin, S148, S152, S173, S182, S270

schizophrenia, S84


  • device use in, S112

  • diabetes care in, S234

  • pediatric type 1 diabetes and, S233


  • for cardiovascular disease, S159–S160

  • in children/adolescents, S28

  • community, S28

  • in dental practices, S28

  • for gestational diabetes mellitus, S28, S32–S33

  • in individuals with HIV, S28

  • medications, S28

  • for neuropathy, S240

  • for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, S27–S28

  • testing interval, S28

  • for type 1 diabetes, S23–S24

  • for type 2 diabetes, S240–S241

seasonal farmworkers, S13

self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). see blood glucose monitoring (BGM)

semaglutide, S44, S60, S132, S134, S146, S148, S149, S151, S152, S174–S175, S180–S181, S182, S197, S222

sensor-augmented pumps, S8, S106, S118, S119, S141, S144, S218, S236, S260

sensory impairment, S53, S209, S210

setmelanotide, S132

sexual dysfunction, S207

sickle cell disease, A1C and, S21, S22

simvastatin, S167, S168, S170

sitagliptin, S148, S152, S173, S182

skilled nursing facilities, S223, S224–S225

sleep health, S86

smart pens. see connected insulin pens

smoking cessation, S45, S51, S79, S239

social capital, S15

social context, S13–S15

social determinants of health (SDOH), S7, S11–S13, S15, S70, S80, S147

sodium intake, S72, S74, S75–S76, S163

sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, S102, S103, S142, S148, S149, S151, S152, S154, S158, S159, S177–S180, S181, S182, S183, S184, S194, S196, S197, S198, S218, S224, S270, S273

SOLOIST-WHF trial, S183

sotagliflozin, S180, S182, S183

SPRINT trial, S160, S161, S162


  • of diabetic kidney disease, S54, S194

  • of type 1 diabetes, S20

statin therapy, S5, S7, S44, S45, S75, S166–S169, S173, S174, S176, S178, S220, S231, S232, S238, S239, S245

  • diabetes risk with, S170

  • with bempedoic acid, S169

  • with fibrate, S169, S170

  • with niacin, S169, S170

statins, S57

sulfonylureas, S8, S14, S30, S31, S99, S146, S148, S152, S154, S221, S222, S224, S259

supplements, dietary, S72, S75–S76, S130, S131


  • for foot problems, S209–S211

of chronic kidney disease, S194–S195

SUSTAIN-6 trial, S174–S175, S180, S197

sweeteners, nonnutritive, S72, S76

sympathomimetic amine anorectics, S133

  • in combination with antiepileptic, S133

syringes, insulin, S117–S118

tapentadol, S208

technology, diabetes, S6, S12, S111–S127

  • blood glucose monitoring, S112–S114

  • continuous glucose monitoring devices, S114–S117

  • general device principles, S111–S112

  • insulin delivery, S117–S121

TECOS trial, S173, S182

TEDDY study, S24

telehealth, S11


  • of glucose monitor, S114

  • perception of, S206, S209, S210

testing interval, S28

testosterone, low, in men, S44

tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (TDAP) vaccine, S55

thiazide-like diuretics, S164, S165, S196

thiazolidinediones, S30, S44, S131, S148, S183, S222

thyroid disease

autoimmune, S31, S56

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S231, S237

time-restricted eating, S6, S73

tirzepatide, S7, S44, S60, S131, S146, S152

tobacco cessation, S44, S68, S79, S239, S246


  • blood glucose awareness, S82

  • on device use, S112

tramadol, S208

transfusion, A1C and, S21


  • from hospital to ambulatory setting, S270, S273–S274

  • from pediatric to adult care, S230, S246


  • islet, S105, S142, S146

  • liver, S58

  • organ, post-transplant diabetes mellitus after, S19, S29–S30

  • pancreas, S142, S146

  • renal, S146, S57, S173, S174, S180, S182, S197

tricyclic antidepressants, S8, S131, S207, S208, S209

TWILIGHT trial, S172

two-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) test, S20, S21, S22, S25, S31, S33, S34

two-step strategy, for GDM, S34–S335

type 1 diabetes, S8, S9, S12, S13

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease outcomes in, S103

  • beta-cell replacement therapy, S142, S146, S175

  • in children/adolescents, S233–S240

  • classification, S19–S20

  • diagnosis, S22–S24

  • idiopathic, S23

  • immune-mediated, S23

  • in hospitalized patients, S270

  • insulin therapy, S140–S142

  • noninsulin treatments, S142

  • in older adults, S8, S224

  • peripheral neuropathy in, S206

  • pregnancy in women with preexisting, S9, S205, S255, S257, S258, S260

  • retinopathy in, S8, 204

  • screening, S23–S24

  • staging, S20

  • subcutaneous insulin regimens, S112, S114–S115, S140, S144–S145, S148

  • surgical treatment, S142

type 2 diabetes

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease outcomes in, S103

  • in children/adolescents, S240–S246

  • classification, S19–S20

  • combination therapy, S7, S143, S144, S146, S147, S149, S150–S151, S154, S161, S168, S168–S169, S169–S170, S208, S222

  • initial therapy, S119, S238

  • insulin pump use in, S119

  • obesity and weight management, S6, S27, S59, S60, S120, S128–S136, S244

  • pharmacologic treatment in adults, S142–S154

  • pregnancy in women with preexisting, S260

  • prevention or delay, S41–S48

  • retinopathy in, S204

  • risk test for, S26

  • screening in asymptomatic adults, S27–S28

  • screening in children/adolescents, S4, S28

type 3c diabetes, S32

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), S101, S102, S103, S104, S176

ulcers, foot, S53, S78, S206, S209–S212

ultra-rapid-acting insulin analogs, S143, S145

vagus nerve stimulator, S132

vascular disease, S176, S209

prevention of, in prediabetes, S44–S45

VERIFY trial, S149

vertical sleeve gastrectomy, S135

VERTIS CV trial, S178, S179, S180

Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), S101, S102, S103, S218

vildagliptin, S149

vitamin D supplementation, S44, S72, S76, S131

VOYAGER-PAD trial, S172

weight loss surgery. see metabolic surgery.

weight loss/management, S70–S76, S163, S165, S176, S208, S220–S221

  • in diabetes prevention, S6, S9, S28, S29, S42–S43, S44, S45, S76

  • in type 1 diabetes, S20

  • in type 2 diabetes, S6, S27, S59, S60, S120, S128–S136, S244

well-being, S6, S12, S68–S97, S236

whites, non-Hispanic, S22, S25, S28, S61, S77, S98, S160, S173, S174, S178

WISDM trial, S8, S218

zoster vaccine, S55

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/license.