Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is indicated to alleviate debilitating pancreas-related pain and mitigate diabetes in patients with acute recurrent and chronic pancreatitis when medical/endoscopic therapies fail. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of insulin requirement at 1 year following TPIAT in a cohort of children.


This was a review of 43 pediatric patients followed after TPIAT for 1 year or longer. Primary outcome was insulin use at 1 year, categorized as follows: insulin independent, low insulin requirement (<0.5 units/kg/day), or high insulin requirement (≥0.5 units/kg/day).


At 1 year after TPIAT, 12 of 41 (29%) patients were insulin independent and 21 of 41 (51%) had low and 8 of 41 (20%) had high insulin requirement. Insulin-independent patients were younger than those with low and high insulin requirement (median age 8.2 vs. 14.6 vs. 13.1 years, respectively; P = 0.03). Patients with insulin independence had a higher number of transplanted islet equivalents (IEQ) per kilogram body weight (P = 0.03) and smaller body surface area (P = 0.02), compared with those with insulin dependence. Preoperative exocrine insufficiency was associated with high insulin requirement (P = 0.03). Higher peak C-peptide measured by stimulated mixed-meal tolerance testing (MMTT) at 3 and 6 months post-TPIAT was predictive of lower insulin requirement at 1 year (P = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively).


We conclude that insulin independence following pediatric TPIAT is multifactorial and associated with younger age, higher IEQ per kilogram body weight transplanted, and smaller body surface area at time of operation. Higher peak C-peptide measured by MMTT following TPIAT confers a higher likelihood of low insulin requirement.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.17072708.

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