We characterized annual trends of severe hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic crises (diabetic ketoacidosis/hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state) in patients with diabetes and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).


This was a nationwide, retrospective study of adults (≥18 years old) with diabetes/ESKD, from the United States Renal Data System registry, between 2013 and 2017. Primary outcome was annual rates of emergency department visits or hospitalizations for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic crises, reported as number of events/1,000 person-years. Event rates and risk factors were adjusted for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, dialysis modality, comorbidities, treatment regimen, and U.S. region.


Among 521,789 adults with diabetes/ESKD (median age 65 years [interquartile range 57–73], 56.1% male, and 46% White), overall adjusted rates of hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic crises were 53.64 and 18.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. For both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia crises, respectively, the risks decreased with age and were lowest in older patients (≥75 vs. 18–44 years old: incidence rate ratio 0.35, 95% CI 0.33–0.37, and 0.03, 0.02–0.03), women (1.09, 1.06–1.12, and 1.44, 1.35–1.54), and those with smoking (1.36, 1.28–1.43, and 1.71, 1.53–1.91), substance abuse (1.27, 1.15–1.42, and 1.53, 1.23–1.9), retinopathy (1.10, 1.06–1.15, and 1.36, 1.26–1.47), and insulin therapy (vs. no therapy; 0.60, 0.59–0.63, and 0.44, 0.39–0.48). For hypoglycemia, specifically, additional risk was conferred by Black race (1.11, 1.08–1.15) and amputation history (1.20, 1.13–1.27).


In this nationwide study of patients with diabetes/ESKD, hypoglycemic crises were threefold more common than hyperglycemic crises, greatly exceeding national reports in nondialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Young, Black, and female patients were disproportionately affected.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.16692190.

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