Difficulty achieving preset goals (e.g., ≥5% weight loss, ≥150 min of weekly physical activity) in the yearlong National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) can prompt dropout and diminish benefits. We piloted a more patient-centered NDPP adaptation (NDPP-Flex) that promotes a variety of attainable and individually tailored goals to reduce diabetes risks, along with flexibility to adjust goals each week as needed.


Retention, physical activity, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated among diverse participants with diabetes risks who received our pilot of NDPP-Flex beginning in January and July 2018 (n = 95), with a planned comparison with standard NDPP delivery in preceding cohorts that launched between September 2016 and October 2017 (n = 245). Both the standard NDPP and NDPP-Flex interventions were 1 year in duration and implemented in phases (i.e., nonrandomized).


Average adjusted retention (e.g., 158.90 ± 15.20 vs. 166.71 ± 9.38 days; P = 0.674), physical activity (157.97 ± 11.91 vs. 175.64 ± 7.54 weekly min; P = 0.231), and weight loss (1.46 ± 0.38% vs. 1.90 ± 0.24%; P = 0.396) were similar between NDPP-Flex versus standard NDPP. However, NDPP-Flex participants had greater HbA1c reduction on average (0.22 ± 0.05% vs. 0.06 ± 0.03%; P = 0.018) and were more likely to have normoglycemia at follow-up (odds ratio 4.62; P = 0.013 [95% CI 1.38–15.50]) than participants in the standard NDPP.


An adapted, more patient-centered NDPP that focuses on flexible, self-selected goals may be a promising strategy to improve glycemia even in the absence of substantial weight loss.

See accompanying article, p. 2457.

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